Helmets.org

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

Consumer-funded, volunteer staff

Helmets Children Promotions Statistics Search


Bibliography of Helmet Documents
As of November 29, 1995


Summary: Bibliographies were useful in the days of paper, but we have not updated this page since we put our materials on the web in 1995. The documents are old now. We do have a page up that lists the documents we have available on our website. We have another page, updated constantly, with a list of medical journal articles.

WARNING: old addresses, phone numbers and other data in this old document!



AMC Media Corporation,

From A to Z by Bike

AMC Media Corporation

01/01/95

A 10x8 inch full-color comic running through the alphabet with a tip for each letter. Nice graphics, and all riders are helmeted. Q is for Quiz. This teaching guide is priced by AMC starting at $1.50 each with quantity discounts down to 50 cents each for over 10,000. Not available from us: contact AMC Media, Suite 729, 250 H Street, Blaine, WA 98230, phone (800) 667-6119.


BHSIDOC #567

Available from AMC Media, Not BHSI.

ASTM F-08 Committee Task Force,

Analysis of Comments on the CPSC's Bicycle Helmet Standard Draft

ASTM F-08 Committee Task Force. Draft by BHSI.

02/22/95

Fifteen members of the ASTM F-08 headgear committee reviewed the comments submitted to the Consumer Product Safety Commission on CPSC's draft bicycle helmet standard and submitted this analysis. Among other things the group concluded that (1) the helmet's date of manufacture should be clear and uncoded; (2) quality control should be based on statistically relevant sampling; (3) the time duration of the acceleration pulse should not be a criterion; (4) extent of coverage should be defined solely by the location of the test line (some deferred); (5) there was no consensus on conspicuity requirements; (6) more research is needed on head weights to determine if test headform weights should be varied by size; (7) test lines should be located above the basic plane at a distance proportional to the headform size; (8) a precisely-defined spray box could replace total immersion for the wet sample test; (9)more basic science is needed on localized loading to determine whether a point loading test is necessary; (10) a helmet should be tested with accessories on it; (11) the scope statement could include non-contact roller skating as well as bicycling; and (12) test lines on child helmets should be simplified. BHSI coordinated the drafting of this document.

6 Page(s)

ASTM Standardization News Staff,

Enhancing the Visibility of Pedestrians During the Day and Night

ASTM Standardization News, December, 1992

12/01/92

Reports on a new ASTM standard for reflectorization of pedestrian (and bicycle rider) clothing and accessories, including hats and helmets. The standard (E-1501) covers minimum retroreflectivity performance requirements and test methods, but does not require specific configurations of reflective materials for identification. To be followed by standards for daytime conspicuity. Meeting this standard probably requires a bicycle helmet to have about three-quarters of an inch of reflective tape all around.


BHSIDOC #543

2 Page(s)



Abbott, Dorothy

Putting a Lid on Mandatory Helmet Law

Texas Bicycle Coalition, 1992.

06/01/92

TBC's position on a mandatory helmet law. After much discussion, they decided they would not spend much time supporting a mandatory helmet law, but would endorse it if it included a bicycle safety education provision and covered all ages rather than just children.


BHSIDOC #469

5 Page(s)



Acton, et al,

Children and Bicycles: What is Really Happening?: Studies of Fatal and non-fatal bicycle Injury

Injury Prevention 1995: 1:86-91

01/01/95

Two Australian studies of child riding showed that faulty riding caused most crashes, both on and off road. Concludes that safety campaigns should not stop at helmet wearing but include training in safe riding, separation of motorized vehicles from bicycles, helmet with facial protection and improved handlebars.


BHSIDOC #575

8 Page(s)



Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety,

Motorcycle Helmet and Seatbelt Law Fact Sheet

Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety

01/01/90

Facts on percentage of unhelmeted motorcyclists with no insurance (41%), cost of their hospital care ($42,291 for unhelmeted, vs. $15,851 for helmeted), fatalities per 1,000 crashes (for Colorado it was 9 helmeted and 23 unhelmeted), and who pays--we all do. Between 51% and 75% of injured motorcyclists have no insurance. Up to 82% of their hospitalization costs are paid from public funds. Quotes a U.S. Supreme Court ruling: "From the moment of the injury, society picks the person up off the highway, delivers him to a municipal hospital and municipal doctors, provides him with unemployment compensation if, after recovery, he cannot replace his lost job, and, if the injury causes permanent disability, may assume the responsibility for his and his family's subsistence."


BHSIDOC #330

3 Page(s)



Allgemeiner Deutscher Auto Club,

ADAC Implores Parents to Make Their Children Wear Helmets

Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil Club press release

08/30/90

Ralph Hirsch's translation of this press release by the German equivalent of AAA says parents should buy their children helmets. Notes that it is still rare to see helmets on children in Europe. Also says "As no European standard has yet been set for cycling helmets, the helmet should be approved by a technical authority."


BHSIDOC #334

1 Page(s)



Allison, Malorye

The Effect of Brain Injury on Marriage

Headlines, May/June, 1993

05/01/93

A health professional's study of the patterns of how brain damage affects marriages. Identifies elements which make the marital relationship more at risk after one partner is brain injured: youth, financial stress, female the injured party, sexual difficulties, etc. A thoughtful and sobering article which might help someone with a brain injured spouse see their problems with more perspective.


BHSIDOC #476

4 Page(s)



American Academy of Pediatrics,

Am. Acad. of Pediatrics Policy Statement: Bicycle Helmets

American Academy of Pediatrics

01/01/90

Briefly states the bicyclist's head injury problem and describes the effectiveness of current helmets. Recommends that pediatricians "inform parents and patients of the importance of wearing bicycle helmets and the dangers of riding without a helmet." Further recommends that retail outlets be urged to carry helmets, that CPSC develop a national standard, that local coalitions be encouraged to promote helmets and that media depict helmeted riders. Significant because some studies show that parents listen to their pediatrician. Reprints from AAP, 141 Northwest Point Blvd., P. O. Box 927, Elk Grove Village, IL 60009-0927.


BHSIDOC #316

2 Page(s)

Media: From AAP.



American Academy of Pediatrics,

Your Child's First Vehicle Doesn't Come with Driver Education

American Academy of Pediatrics, 1992. Pamphlet

01/01/92

A beautiful full color pamphlet by Kingswood Communications on both sides of 8.5 x 11 inch stock. Inside opens to a full page photo of two kids on bikes with safety points identified, including helmets. Back has Rules of the Road and Parent/Child Contract. Media from American Academy of Pediatrics, 610 Old Lancaster Rd, Suite 220, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010, tel. (800) CAR-BELT.


BHSIDOC #442

2 Page(s)

Available: From AAP.



American Academy of Pediatrics,

Physician's Resource Guide for Bicycle Safety Education

American Academy of Pediatrics, 1992

01/01/92

A 26 page booklet for physicians which includes sections on the need for action, facts on bicycle injuries, counseling guidelines, childhood counseling schedules with suggested ages for counseling on various injuries, and safety sheet samples. The sheets cover child passengers, helmets, myths, choosing the right size bicycle, training children and tips for getting your kids to wear bicycle helmets. The tips: start early, wear a helmet yourself, explain why, give rewards, forbid helmetless riding, encourage your child's friends to wear helmets. Has an order form for ordering the safety sheets and other materials for physicians to hand out to patients. Would not xerox, so for copies please contact American Academy of Pediatrics, Department of Publications, 141 Northwest Point Blvd., P. O. Box 927, Elk Grove Village, IL 60009.


BHSIDOC #468

25 Page(s)

Media: From AAP.



American National Standards Institute,

American National Standard for Protective Headgear for Bicyclists ANSI Z90.4

American National Standards Institute publication.

01/01/84

ANSI bicycle helmet standard due for extension in 1989 and under revision by the ANSI Z90.4 Committee. Specifies single impacts on flat anvil and hemispherical anvil with no less than one meter drop height to achieve impact velocity of at least 4.57 m/s (45.7J for a 10 kg drop apparatus). Strap strength test is a dynamic jerk from a 2 kg mass dropped 1 meter (19.6J impact). ISO headform and twin wire drop rig are called out. Maximum acceleration shall not exceed 300 g. Available only from ANSI due to copyright and fact that ANSI supports itself from sale of standards. Address: American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. Telephone (212) 354-3300. Cost is $9 including shipping (as of 3/89).


BHSIDOC #31

15 Page(s)

Media: FROM ANSI ONLY, NOT BHSI!



American National Standards Institute,

Draft for revision of the ANSI Z90.4 1984 Bicycle Helmet Standard

Snell Foundation as Secretariat for the ANSI Z90 Committee.

05/18/89

A proposed draft for revision of the ANSI Z90.4 1984 standard prepared in May, 1989, probably by Channing Ewing and Marshall Irving. Major changes from the 1984 standard include higher energy impact tests, with a lower energy drop for children's helmets, a requirement that solvents must not damage the materials used, a requirement that manufacturers keep a complete test report in their files, and a test of the effectiveness of the retention system using a hook, strap and 20 kg pull. Weight to yank strap for strength test raised from 2 to 3 kg. Retention system tests to be performed after impact tests, which will flunk EPS helmets unless they have reinforcing or some means of staying in one piece. Draft to be marked up in a meeting in July, 1992.This document will be dropped when the next draft is available.


BHSIDOC #187

33 Page(s)



American Society for Testing and Materials,

ASTM Publishes Two New Standards for Bicycle Helmets

American Society for Testing and Materials, undated.

06/01/93

Announces the promulgation of ASTM standard F1446, the "base" standard for headgear testing, and F1447, the bicycle helmet standard. Touts the new 90 degree hazard anvil, which subsequently proved too severe and required revision of the standard to more realistic levels. Also notes that the "roll-off" test for positional stability should be added in 1993. Dean Fisher is quoted saying these are "new areas," although both types of tests have been part of various foreign standards for years. There is no further specific information about the tests called out by the standard, but it is incorporated in our helmet standard comparison (BHSIDOC #185). For ASTM info contact Bill Brown at ASTM, (215) 299-5499.


BHSIDOC #493

2 Page(s)



Andersson et al,

Chin Strap Forces in Bicycle Helmets

SP Swedish Natl Testing and Res. Inst. SP Report 1993:42

01/01/93

Reports on crash lab research using helmeted crash test dummies suspended horizontally and impacted by a large wedge-shaped block of asphalt with a 28 degree slope rolling on a track. Impact speed were higher than Hodgson's earlier research on this subject (BHSIDOC #310 and #357), and the asphalt surface was more realistic than Hodgson's. Measured chin strap forces and found them to be low compared to standards requirements. Tested a hard shell, a non-shell and a strange shell made of strips (obviously from the description an Etto). Rotational effects of the helmets (how hard they would jerk the neck) differed considerably. The shell helmets did not grip the asphalt, but the no-shell helmets did, in each impact. They rotated and transferred their rotation directly to the headform, rather than by tugging on the strap. The research team did not attempt to measure angular acceleration or neck forces. This study has implications for rotational injury, indicating that no-shell helmets will tend to jerk the neck and head by gripping the pavement in an impact. We have a copy of this report on our website as a .pdf file.


BHSIDOC #523

31 Page(s)



Andersson, Larsson, Sandberg,

Chin Strap Forces in Bicycle Helmets

Swedish Natl Testing and Research Institute-SP Report 1993:42

01/01/93

The authors mounted a crash test dummy horizontally, put one of three helmet types on its head and impacted it with a chunk of moving asphalt slanted at 28 degrees. They measured force at the buckle and measured g's in the headform with a triaxial accelerometer. The helmets were a hard shell, a non-shell and a multi-piece ribbed hardshell (presumably an Etto). Chin strap forces were in some cases significant, but remained well below requirements of current bicycle helmet standards. Rotational effects differed considerably, with the no-shell helmet gripping the road surface and rotating the headform, while the shelled helmets did not. Results differed from Hodgson's studies (BHSIDOC #357) with peak forces on the headform considerably higher for no-shell helmets, indicating more strongly that a hard shell provides better protection from rotational injury. Dummies wearing no-shells were subjected to bent necks during the impact, while those in shelled helmets were not. The authors theorize that their higher speed of impact (20 to 41 km/h vs. Hodgson's 10 km/h) might have made a difference, and call for further research with different impact angles and pavement surfaces. They conclude that positional stability is more important for child helmets than sheer strap strength. Key factors are coverage and fit. In all cases straps were made looser during the crash when the helmet's liner compressed. The authors mention other Swedish research showing that 91% of bicyclist fatalities from head injuries involve a collision with a motor vehicle. They also note their belief that their test rig can test all relevant parameters better than a conventional drop rig. Tests of buckles releasing at various force levels indicated that the new draft European child helmet standard requiring self-release buckles at 60 to 90 Newtons to prevent playground "hangings" can be implemented without children losing their helmets in normal crashes.


BHSIDOC #487

31 Page(s)



Austin, Robert et al.

Pedestrian Conspicuity Under the Standard Headlight System Related to Driver Perception

Unpublished paper for Transportation Research Board, Jan. 1975

01/01/75

This paper indicates that the high level of nighttime pedestrian/vehicle accidents requires attention to conspicuity. It explores how much conspicuity is needed and how to achieve it with various reflective surfaces.


BHSIDOC #110

27 Page(s)



Australian Cyclist

Oz Helmet Wins Design Award, Titanium Toppers

Australian Cyclist, Aug.-Sept., 1991

08/01/91

A promotional article on Headway helmets' use of titanium in its outside coating. There is titanium dioxide in ordinary white house paint, too, but Headway is making headlines with theirs. The Aussie article features a photo of a van with Headway's Frank Matich (a former race car driver) at the wheel resting on four headway helmets. This is not an ANSI test. There is also some serious information on Headway's designs.


BHSIDOC #441

2 Page(s)



Australian Institute of Health & Welfare,

Bicycle Helmets

Injury Issues Monitor, AIHW, S. Australia, No. 1, Dec., 1992

12/01/92

This first issue of the Monitor is devoted to bicycle helmets. It has articles on the problem, the WHO initiative, helmet development, usage rates, and How Effective is Bicycle Helmet Legislation. Public attitudes are reported to favor Australia's mandatory helmet laws by margins of 78% to 89% despite some reaction. Wearing rates have risen in each of the states, reaching levels as high as 86% for commuters in the Northern Territory and as low as 33% for secondary school children in Queensland. Enforcement varies, with over 5,000 citations issued in South Australia, but no penalty enacted in Queensland. In Victoria, police seldom stop cyclists to enforce basic traffic laws, and apparently are not enforcing the helmet law either. A fold-out chart shows provisions of the eight state and territory laws.


BHSIDOC #463

8 Page(s)



Australian Standards Association (SAA),

1977 Aus. Std. Spec.: Gen'l Purpose Protective Helmets (for use in Pedal Cycling, Horse Riding and Other Activities...)

Standards Association of Australia, 1977

01/01/77

Superseded by 1986 Australian standard.


BHSIDOC #96

20 Page(s)



Australian Standards Association (SAA),

Australian Standard 2063.1 - 1986. Lightweight Protective Helmets for use in Pedal Cycling, Horse Riding and Other Activities...

Standards Association of Australia, Sydney

01/01/86

Australia's current bicycle helmet standard, providing for 1.5 meter drops on flat and hemispherical anvils from 1.5 meters with maximum g's of 400, or 200 for 3.0 ms, or 150 for 6.0 ms. Has a penetration test with a pointed striker dropped one meter. Has a strap strength test using a static pull rather than a dynamic yank. Has a positional stability test using a hook under the edge of the shell and a 50 N pull. Requires "a hard shell." No vent can be large enough to pass a 20 mm diameter rod through. Copyrighted and available only from Standards Association of Australia, Standards House, 80 Arthur Street, North Sydney, N.S.W., Australia.


BHSIDOC #188

52 Page(s)

Media: FROM SAA ONLY, NOT BHSI!



Baker, et al,

Head Injuries in Non-Motorized Informal Recreation

Johns Hopkins School of Public Health report to Snell, Nov. 1992

11/01/92

A review of data available on head injuries in rollerblading, horseback riding, skiing, sledding, use of playground equipment and use of wheeled toys. Bicycling was excluded, and is covered in a companion monograph listed as BHSIDOC #458. Also excluded were team sports, water sports and motorized activities. Since bicycle injuries are not covered we do not distribute this document, but you can get if from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #457

48 Page(s)

Media: From Snell Foundation.



Baker, et al,

Injuries to Bicyclists: A National Perspective

Johns Hopkins Injury Prevention Center, 1993

05/01/93

Research sponsored by the Snell Foundation to compile available data on bicycle head injuries from a wide variety of sources. Has a literature review, data on bicycle trips from the Federal Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (1977-91), death certificate data, police data from the FARS, hospital admissions, emergency room cases and BikeCentennial crash data. Integrates these sources to conclude, for example, that bicyclists suffer 55 deaths per 100 million person trips (cars 13, motorcycles 602), males die 2.5 times as often as females, people over 50 suffer the most deaths per million trips, people over 65 suffer the most deaths per 10,000 injuries, and some other interesting things. Copies are available from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #458

90 Page(s)

Media: From Snell Foundation



Balderston, Thomas

Bicycle Helmets: Which One?

Bicycling Magazine

03/01/83

WABA's first published article ranking helmets by brand and model based on Snell lab tests. Ratings of 24 helmets and considerable comment on helmets and helmet testing. Somewhat outdated but still informative.


BHSIDOC #2

9 Page(s)



Barrett, Margaret

Bicycle Helmet Promotion Workshop Proceedings

Harvard Center for Injury Control, September 12, 1991

09/12/91

Summary of a workshop on helmet promotion. Speakers covered head injury basics, need for helmets, components of a campaign, descriptions of some local programs, evaluation. The HCIC is organizing a coalition for a campaign. List of participants (mostly Boston area) included.


BHSIDOC #410

18 Page(s)



Becker, Edward

Minutes of the ANSI Z90 Helmet Committee Meeting, Denver, May 1995

Snell Foundation as Secretariat for the ANSI Z90 Helmet Committee

06/20/95

Minutes of the ANSI meeting held in Denver where the Committee decided to adopt the ASTM 1446/1447 bicycle helmet standard to replace the defunct 1984 ANSI Z90.4 standard. With roster of attendees.


BHSIDOC #570

7 Page(s)



Beier, Schuck, Shuller, Spann,

Determination of Physical Data of the Head: Center of Gravity and Moments of Inertia of Human Heads

Office of U.S. Naval Research, by contract with U. of Munich

04/01/79

Report on cadaveric research to determine the cg of the head and moments of inertia. Found the average (mean) cg to be located within the mid sagittal plane, 8 mm in front of the axis connecting the external auditory meati (ear openings) and 3.1 cm above the Frankfort Plane. Measured the cg of the head only, not the head and neck. We include a cover letter from Dr. Channing Ewing which places the study in perspective.


BHSIDOC #238

38 Page(s)



Bell, Alison

The Grateful Head

Women's Sports and Fitness, May/June 1990

05/01/90

Reporting on Voigt Hodgson's work on sliding resistance, and on the ANSI and Snell standards. Concludes that Hodgson's study "shows that a Snell-approved helmet, which must survive a more rigorous testing procedure, is not necessarily safer than one approved by ANSI." Helmets do not "survive" lab testing, and it was clear from the data that the Snell helmets among Hodgson's sample performed better than the ANSI helmets. Hodgson issued a clarification on the question after this article appeared which stated: "Degree of severity of the standard met by a helmet was a reliable indicator of safest performance. The four lowest average risk helmets...were all Snell helmets."


BHSIDOC #338

1 Page(s)



Bell Helmets,

Bell's Funding of Art Center College of Design Bicycle Helmet Project

Bell press release, Bicycling mag. article

06/26/91

Two press releases and two articles on a helmet design project Bell sponsored. Photos of the resultant designs are wild. You will not see them on the market, but Bell hired two of the students as interns, and the designs may eventually inspire production models.


BHSIDOC #385

10 Page(s)



Bell Helmets Staff - L.R.L.,

Bicycle Helmet Specification - Interim Issue

Draft standard developed by Bell for the ABLA.

07/24/74

"This interim specification is prepared by Bell Helmets, Inc. in an attempt to provide the Amateur Bicycling League of America with a means to evaluate quality and performance of a helmet designed specifically for a bicycle rider." Forward also acknowledges use of draft SHCA/UCIrvine standard as base. ABLA was predecessor to the USCF as the main racing club in the US. Specifies four single drops of 1 meter on both hemispherical and flat anvils, with failure if maximum g's exceed 150 for more than 6 ms, 200 for more than 3 ms, or 300 for any time at all. Penetration test with six pound sharp striker dropped 39.37 inches. Test for Cooling Efficiency page was blank except for title. Same for Test of Retention System.


BHSIDOC #57

17 Page(s)



Bell Sports, Inc.,

Press Release: Bell Sports, Inc. to Fund National Head Injury Foundation Bicycle Helmet Campaigns

Bell Sports Inc., Box 1020, Norwalk, CA 90650, (213) 921-9451

01/01/92

Bell is funding ten $1,500 grants to state head injury associations to support helmet campaigns. NHIF's own David P. Reuter Helmet Fund will also provide funds. Bell is also a corporate sponsor of the National Safe Kids Campaign and the official helmet of the Special Olympics International Cycling Program.


BHSIDOC #440

2 Page(s)



Bell and Drakenberg,

Consumer Reported Helmet Accidents: 600 Swedish Cases

Paper from Child Accident Prevention Conference, Stockholm

09/21/89

A study from the Swedish helmet manufacturer AKTA of crash reports returned with their helmets for free replacement of the helmet. (A biased sample) Each crash damaged the all-EPS helmet, but 96% had no head injury. Many of the child users were playing, not riding on bicycles, and the authors had heard of "several" children who were asphyxiated by hanging from their helmets while playing on gym equipment. Since children often wear their helmets while playing off the bike, the authors recommend that the Swedish standard be modified to require easy quick-release buckles.


BHSIDOC #260

7 Page(s)



Bell and Drakenberg,

Promoting Helmet Use in the Schools: the Swedish Experience

Paper from Child Accident Prevention Conference, Stockholm

09/21/89

Written by two employees of the Swedish helmet manufacturing firm AKTA. A summary of Swedish efforts to promote child helmets. Most of the program organizers were public sector employees acting as parents. The study concludes that they need support to continue the effort. It also concludes that a national helmet standard was a key element.


BHSIDOC #261

8 Page(s)



Belongia, Weiss, Bowman, et al,

Severity and Types of Head Trauma Among Adult Bicycle Riders

Wisconsin Medical Journal, January, 1988, Vol 87

01/01/88

Among mostly unhelmeted bike riders with head injuries 33% had injuries of moderate severity, 3% had severe or life-threatening injuries, and 32% had evidence of brain injury. Found that transient loss of consciousness or amnesia occurs commonly among bicycle riders who require emergency treatment for head trauma.


BHSIDOC #337

4 Page(s)



Berchem, Stephen P.

A Community Campaign that Increased Helmet Use Among Bicyclists Summary

U. of Wisconsin-Madison, College of Agr. and Life Sciences

08/01/86

Summary of a master's thesis on a bicycle helmet promotion campaign in Madison, Wisconsin. See BHSIDOC #5 for description. The full document has copies of questionnaires, pamphlets, etc used during the campaign, but this 24 page summary, including two pages of references, has all of the conclusions well covered.


BHSIDOC #4

24 Page(s)



Berchem, Stephen P.

A Community Campaign that Increased Helmet Use Among Bicyclists

U. of Wisconsin-Madison, College of Agr. and Life Sciences

08/01/86

Masters thesis on helmet promotion campaign in Madison, Wisconsin by City employee. Use increased from 15 to 19 percent. Includes: Intro, Literature Review, Campaign description, Results, questionnaires and data. Shorter summary available as BHSIDOC #4 by same author.


BHSIDOC #5

130 Page(s)



Berger, Deborah

Wear a Helmet, Save a Life

Parade Magazine, May 29, 1988

05/29/88

A helmet article in a mass circulation general readership magazine, using two bad crashes for vivid material. Quotes Dr. Fred Rivara and Dan Burden.


BHSIDOC #276

2 Page(s)



Berger, Roger E.

Considerations in Developing Test Methods for Protective Headgear Interim Report

National Bureau of Stds, Dept. Commerce. NBSIR 76-1107, Sept 1976

09/01/76

Detailed and scientific discussion of helmet testing theory. Has seven pages of references.


BHSIDOC #21

55 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper. NTIS should have as well.



Beyers, Dan

Safety Panel Will Not Set Bicycle Helmet Standard

Washington Post, August 1, 1991.

08/01/91

Reports that CPSC decided not to issue its own bicycle helmet standard, but to rely on the ANSI standard instead since most helmets on the market meet the ANSI standard. CPSC actually has no resources to promulgate or enforce a standard, and may have more impact by forcing recalls of non-ANSI helmets.


BHSIDOC #368

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Dealer Showcase,

Halos for Sale

Bicycle Dealer Showcase magazine, February, 1992.

02/01/92

Reports on the Halo reflective helmet band, which uses rubber-backed fabric ringing the base of the helmet. The manufacturer claims no increase in sliding resistance compared to a fabric-covered softshell. This add-on responds to a need which helmet manufacturers refuse to meet--some even manufacture black helmets. Consumers need education on the conspicuity issue, which will be an issue in standards design for years to come.


BHSIDOC #434

2 Page(s)



Bicycle Dealer Showcase Staff,

Bell Buys Rhode Gear and Look America

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, Jan, 1990

01/01/90

Bell Helmets has purchased Rhode Gear (for whom they were making helmets) and Look America.


BHSIDOC #290

2 Page(s)



Bicycle Dealer Showcase and Cyclist Magazine,

Specialized Offers No-Fault Return Policy on Helmets

Bicycle Dealer Showcase Magazine 8/89, and Cyclist Magazine 7/89

07/01/89

Two articles announcing that Specialized is offering a free replacement for their helmets when damaged in a crash if they are returned with a crash story.


BHSIDOC #280

3 Page(s)



Bicycle Federation,

Head Smart Activity Book. Illustrated and designed by Mary Alice Rath.

Bicycle Federation of America

01/01/88

A child's activity book featuring coloring, connecting the dots, what's missing, a maze and a mask, all featuring bicycle helmets. Available from the National Head Injury Foundation at 1-800-444-NHIF.


BHSIDOC #181

8 Page(s)

Media: FROM BICYCLE FEDERATION, NOT BHSI!



Bicycle Federation,

BFA Completes Helmet Promotion Review

Pro Bike News, April 1992.

04/01/92

Bike Fed's Linda Tracy finished a US government-funded study on helmet promotions in the U.S. Main conclusions: most campaigns are local and target children. They use presentations, media, literature, discounts. Budgets seldom exceed $5,000. Campaign materials are available. Recommends: do evaluations, improve data tracking, research reasons for non-use, identify high risks, identify successful model campaigns. Includes eight sources for helmet info. Publication scheduled later in 1992. Info: Linda Tracy, BFA, P.O.Box 8315, Missoula, MT 59807, tel. (406) 543-8113.


BHSIDOC #433

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Federation of Washington,

Mandatory Helmets Position Statement

Bicycle Federation of Washington (state)

11/10/90

Encourages riders to wear helmets, noting that they are effective but do not prevent crashes. Supports mandatory helmet law phased in over 4 years if part of a comprehensive bicycle safety campaign to include a state coordinator, facility standards, education program, and a ban on wearing headphones while cycling. A lot of thought went into this position.


BHSIDOC #328

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Forum,

Madison (WI) Helmet Campaign a Success

Bicycle Forum, No. 13, Fall, 1986

10/15/86

A short summary of the successes of the Madison, Wisconsin helmet promotion campaign. A longer summary and the full report by Steve Berchem are available as BHSIDOCS #4 and #5.


BHSIDOC #85

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Forum Staff,

Nat'l. Helmet Campaign Gears Up. New Natl. Policy Project Begins

Bicycle Forum, Number 21, Fall/Winter 1988

09/01/88

A report on the Safe Kids helmet promotion campaign, and a second article reporting on a new project announced at Pro Bike 88 to work with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) on the revision of AASHTO's guidelines for highways and for bicycle facilities. Both publications are used extensively by transportation planners.


BHSIDOC #119

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Forum/Pro Bike News,

North Carolina Helmet Campaign. Articles from Bicycle Forum and Pro Bike News

Bicycle Forum, Spring/Summer 1989;Pro Bike News, May, 1989.

05/01/89

Short articles in Pro Bike News and Bicycle Forum on the new helmet promotion campaign in Pitt County, North Carolina, funded by the NC DOT. The campaign is focused on children. Local contact is Linda Loud, Bicycle Helmet Promotion Project, Pitt County Health Dept., 1825 W. 6th Street, Greenville, NC 27834.


BHSIDOC #247

2 Page(s)



Bicycle Guide,

What's Hot: Head First: Aria Sonics Helmet

Bicycle Guide, April, 1991.

04/01/91

Describes the Aria Sonics Tempest helmet, made of Expanded PolyPropylene (EPP) rather than the Expanded Poly Styrene (EPS) used in most helmets. "The advantage claimed for EPP is that it can withstand multiple impacts without damage..." Bicycle Guide concluded that the claim is open to question.


BHSIDOC #391

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Guide Staff,

Bicycle Guide Q Sheet: helmet-related articles. March 1989.

Bicycle Guide Q Sheet, March, 1989

03/01/89

A publication for dealers with tips on selling helmets, news of the Safe Kids campaign, new Giro packaging, and a comparison of Snell and ANSI standards for bike shop owners.


BHSIDOC #231

2 Page(s)



Bicycle Guide staff,

The Best Ideas of 1987: Giro Prolight

Bicycle Guide, January-February 1988

01/01/88

A recognition of the Giro's "pioneering design" which does not recognize the earlier Bell all-EPS child's helmet as the first of its type.


BHSIDOC #128

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

A Consumer's Guide to Bicycle Helmets

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

08/01/93

BHSI's pamphlet for adults who want meatier reading than cartoons and admonitions. Sections: Need One?, What to Look For, Hard Shell or Soft Shell, Standards, Comfort Requirements, Special Problems, Prices and Where to Buy, How to Buy, When to Replace, Children's Helmets, Consumer Reports Article, and an ad for BHSI. Has a two minute summary. Dense prose, small type. Can be reproduced for non-profit use. Send $1 and a SASE for most recent version. We supply in quantity for 15 cents each including postage.


BHSIDOC #1

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed, Fax on Demand or WWW.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Proposal for a Bicycle Helmet Safety Project

Paper from BHSI.

02/21/89

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute's basic fund-raising proposal, with a description of plans for the program, budget and two scare stories.


BHSIDOC #3

8 Page(s)



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, March, 1989

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, Washington Area Bicyclist Assn.

03/29/89

Tenth Helmet Update. Articles: BHSI Opens New Documentation Center, University of Southern California to Undertake Testing, Susan Matson Names Us "Busy", ANSI Z90.4 Committee Members Submit Comments on Standard, BHSI Still Needs Your Support Letters. Attachment enclosed was BHSI Bibliography of documents (Available as BHSIDOC # 169)


BHSIDOC #166

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or disk.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Bibliography -- This document!

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

08/29/93

BHSI's listing of reference documents in the bicycle helmet field. Annotated. Available at that time as photocopies or on disk as a plain ASCII report, WordPerfect file or dBase III+ file. The disk version is usually updated more frequently than the printed version.


BHSIDOC #168

76 Page(s)

Media: paper or online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Workshop on Bicycle Helmets

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute.

06/01/91

A writeup of BHSI's basic bicycle helmet workshop for bicycle rallies and other events. Has an introduction on how bicyclists began wearing helmets, then covers Why Wear a Helmet, What a Helmet Should Do, What to Look For in a Good Helmet, elements which affect performance (including soft vs. hard shells), testing protocols, standards and promotion strategies. Has nine references and a list of useful contacts. Shorter version available as BHSIDOC #362.


BHSIDOC #177

24 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or on disk.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Comparison of Bicycle Helmet Standards

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

09/06/93

A comparison of eleven bicycle helmet standards or draft standards, broken down into 35 items comparing what each standard requires. The standards are ANSI Z90.4 1984; ANSI May, 1989 draft revision; American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) draft standard; Australian SAA Standard 2063.1 - 1986 with amendments to 1990; British Standard BS 6863:1987; Canadian Standards Association CSA D113.2-M; European prEN 1078:1993; French 1989 draft AFNOR standard; New Zealand SANZ standard NZS 5439:1986 as amended 9/86; Snell 1990 Bicycle standard; and the Swedish Board for Consumer Policies (KOVFS) 1985:6. The comparisons are technical and not annotated for uninitiated readers, but in some cases plain English has been used rather than the technical term (for example, "ear" for "external auditory meatus"). Has a table and graphs comparing the energy levels of the standards for their flat and hemispheric anvil drops, as well as for their strap strength test. Has addresses for procuring the standards, most of which are available only from the standards organization.


BHSIDOC #185

18 Page(s)

Media: online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, July, 1989

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, Washington Area Bicyclist Assn.

07/12/89

Eleventh Helmet Update. Articles: ANSI Committee Meets to Revise Standard, Petition to CPSC for a Federal Bicycle Helmet Standard (available as BHSIDOC# 174), BHSI Documentation Center Tops 200 Documents, Wayne State Studying Sliding Resistance of Hard Shells vs. Soft Shells, BHSI Still Needs Funding for Our Test Rig and Other Encouragement. Original came with a listing of BHSIDOCS that had been added since the last Helmet Update.


BHSIDOC #224

2 Page(s)



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, October 27, 1989. Volume 7, No. 3

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, Washington Area Bicyclist Assn.

10/27/89

Twelfth Helmet Update. Articles: Stapp Car Crash Conference Report, ANSI Committee Moving on Revision of Standard, Standards Comparison Revised to Add French and New Zealand Standards, BHSI Documentation Center Tops 250 Documents, Wayne State Study on Sliding Resistance of Hard Shells vs. Soft Shells is Almost Ready for Release, Johnson and Johnson/Safe Kids Runs Helmet Coupon in Sunday Papers, BHSI Still Seeking Funding for Our Test Rig and Other Encouragement. Original came with another supplement of documents added to the BHSIDOCS listings since the last Update.


BHSIDOC #255

3 Page(s)



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Materials for Bicycle Helmet Safety Program Planners

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, Arlington, VA

01/02/91

BHSI's standard package for callers starting local helmet promotion programs. Includes addresses to contact others who can offer help, plus parts of the Harborview and Dartmouth Medical School guides. Has helmet discount offers, available videos, a speaker's outline, a workshop, statistics, two medical journal articles and two pitiful crash stories.


BHSIDOC #258

36 Page(s)

Media: Online or printed on paper plus files on disk.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Helmet Update, April, 1990

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

04/01/90

Articles: Consumer Reports will publish a helmet article, ANSI Committee moving slowly on revision of standard, Wayne State study on sliding resistance almost ready for release, Safe Kids campaign was a smashing success, EPP helmets arrive, BHSI's standards comparison revised to add Canadian standard, BHSI documentation center tops 300 documents, BHSI still seeking funds and encouragement. Original had new document abstracts for BHSIDOCs 280 through 304 and a new version of the Consumer's Guide to Bicycle Helmets pamphlet.


BHSIDOC #291

3 Page(s)

Available: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Helmet Update, July, 1990

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

07/01/90

Topics: Consumer Reports Publishes a Helmet Article!, Wayne State Study on Sliding Resistance, No Action on ANSI Standard Revision, Bell Helmets Provides Market Estimates, Howard County Passes Mandatory Helmet Law, BHSI Grants Top $4,000 for Year But No Major Program Funding is in Sight. Attachments: complete copy of the Wayne State Study, Washington Post Article on CPSC study, copy of the Howard County law.


BHSIDOC #339

5 Page(s)

Available: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Helmet Update, Vol 8, No. 3, November, 1990.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

11/01/90

Topics: Please Check to See if You Have Our New Address, Snell Issues New Standard, Atlantic City Show Reveals New Models for 1991 Season, Mandatory Helmet Laws are Coming!, New Canadian Standard Tougher in Some Respects Than ANSI, Hodgson Testing Again at Wayne State, "Hairnets" Back on the Market, Pro Bike Conference Features Helmets Prominently, Feedback and New Documents Needed. Attachments: ads for cheap helmets, summary of BHSI's helmet standard comparison, letter from Consumer Reports with "several points that you apparently misunderstood from our article," letter from Schwinn Bicycle Company explaining that although MPA of Italy manufactures both the Schwinn and Vetta helmets, it is not correct to say that "MPA/Vetta" makes Schwinn helmets. (BHSI had picked up the term from Snell's listing and included it in the July, 1990, Update's listing of Snell-certified helmets.)


BHSIDOC #340

14 Page(s)

Available: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

04/01/91

Topics included preliminary results of Hodgson's second study on sliding resistance, Mandatory Helmet Laws, Thinshells, No Action on ANSI Revision, Do You Want this Newsletter Continued and The BHSI Year. Attachments included another section of annotated bibliography and a helmet legislation status sheet from Safe Kids. Also enclosed was a response card asking if the recipient wanted to be on the BHSI mailing list.


BHSIDOC #352

0 Page(s)



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, Late April, 1991

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

04/26/91

Featured a review of Dr. Voigt Hodgson's second study on sliding resistance, and included a complete copy of the study (also available as BHSIDOC #357).


BHSIDOC #356

18 Page(s)

Media: online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Most-Asked Questions About Bicycle Helmets. Workshop.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, Dec, 1991 or more recent.

12/01/91

After noting that helmets are a secondary safety measure, covers The Need, How a Helmet Works, and The Most-Asked Questions. The questions and short answers: What is the best helmet? A Snell helmet that fits. Are soft-shells as good as hard-shells? Nearly, and thin shells are better. Does this helmet fit me? Adjust it or trash it. What's new in helmets? Thin shells, reinforcement, multidensity foam, EPP. What is the coolest helmet? One with big front vents--check Bicycling Magazine. What helmet for my child? A light, comfortable one. When should I replace my helmet? When you crash, maybe before. Will we have compulsory helmet laws? Yes, but probably not soon. When presented this writeup is supplemented by presentation aids. It is updated at least twice annually.


BHSIDOC #362

4 Page(s)

Media: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, December, 1991.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

12/15/91

Report on 1992 helmets. ANSI standard languishes. ASTM to adopt a bicycle helmet standard. New BHSI pamphlet for parents and revision of the Consumer's Guide to Bicycle Helmets. Updates to BHSI's annotated bibliography included.


BHSIDOC #417

0 Page(s)

Media: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, July, 1992.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

07/15/92

Mandatory helmet laws summary. Child deaths in European playgrounds from helmet straps. ANSI standard languishes, ASTM to adopt a standard, World Health Organization initiative (including a copy of their Headlines newsletter), additions to the BHSI bibliography.


BHSIDOC #451

18 Page(s)

Media: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, June, 1993

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

06/01/93

Articles on Mandatory Helmet Laws, ASTM Standard Nears Approval, Mixed Bag of Helmets for 1993, Snell Funds Research Projects, Snell Reduces Severity of Strap Test, WHO Conference, Hal Fenner's Melon Drop, additional bibliography entries. Included a fact sheet from a Johns Hopkins monograph.


BHSIDOC #486

17 Page(s)

Media: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, March, 1994

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

03/01/94

Articles on Mandatory Helmet Laws, ASTM Standard Moving Slowly, Press for Multi-Purpose Helmets, Snell Foundation News, Hal Fenner's Melon Drop, BHSI is on the Internet (info@helmets.org), Mandatory Helmet Law chart, bibliography additions. Also contains the full March edition of the Headlines newsletter, with articles on WHO Helmet Initiative news, Swedish and French developments, a new CPSC report on Bicycle Use and Hazard Patterns in the U.S., a report on the status of various standards and an interview on California's helmet law with Jack Champlin, project director for Safe Roads/Safe Families.


BHSIDOC #503

20 Page(s)

Media: Online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Mandatory Helmet Laws: A Summary

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

02/03/95

A frequently-updated list of bicycle helmet laws in U.S. states (nine as of 2/95; probably higher when you read this), counties (nine) and cities (nine) and one regional park. Includes some laws from other countries (Australia, New Zealand, Canada) as well. Has jurisdiction, geographic area covered, age group covered, and effective date. Notes that many bike clubs, the U.S. Cycling Federation and the Triathlon Federation require helmets for all events. Safe Kids (202) 939-4993 has a larger listing with details on provisions and a list of states where draft laws are under consideration. We include a page from the CPSC's helmet Recommendations which summarizes evaluations of helmet laws to date.


BHSIDOC #513

3 Page(s)

Available: online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

The Helmet Update, August, 1994 Vol 12, No. 2.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

08/11/94

Articles included Consumer Reports Publishes Helmet Ratings; Bell Chooses ASTM, Snell Frets; CPSC to Write U.S. Government Standard, Hold Conference; ASTM Standard Revised; and BHSI News. No additions to the annotated bibliography.


BHSIDOC #514

4 Page(s)

Media: now online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Comments on Draft CPSC Federal Bicycle Helmet Standard

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

10/23/94

BHSI's comments on the CPSC draft included: keep the test lines low, add a point loading test, consider a hair oil test, test at least on sample for retention system effectiveness after the impact test, lower the permissible g level to 250 g, test mirrors and visors and require labeling of manufacturer and date of manufacture in plain uncoded English.


BHSIDOC #525

5 Page(s)

Media: Now online.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Manufacturers and Importers of Bicycle Helmets

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute - Updated frequently.

01/01/95

Our list of manufacturers and importers, which we print out on request, or you can download from our www internet server or our Fax-on-Demand service. At last count it had nearly 80 addresses.


BHSIDOC #535

12 Page(s)

Media: paper.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

ASTM Bicycle Helmet Standard: Outstanding Issues

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

01/01/95

A listing of outstanding issues which the ASTM F-08 committee intends to address in some way eventually. The Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute keeps the list and updates it at six month intervals before each ASTM meeting. Members of the committee submit comments for updating the list. Despite the date on this listing, we send the most recent printed version. Current updates are available on our www Internet server.


BHSIDOC #549

4 Page(s)

Media: paper.



Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute,

Helmet Update, Vol 13, no. 1, April, 1995.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

04/01/95

Articles: CPSC Progress on a Federal Standard, ASTM Standard Revised, Snell Standards Revised, ANSI Z-90.4 Standard Expires, and Snell calls a meeting to begin the revision process, Helmet Trends in '95, European Standard Progressing Slowly, Bike Club Puts up Helmet Billboards, The Government Wants to Help You, Clearinghouse Opens, Voigt Hodgson: Helmet Pioneer, BHSI News.


BHSIDOC #557

16 Page(s)

Available: online.



Bicycle Institute of Victoria,

Pamphlet - Bicycle Helmets, What to Look For

Bicycle Institute of Victoria,Inc, Melbourne, Australia (1987?)

/ /

Six panel pamphlet printed on two sides of a standard sheet in reddish ink. Photo front appears to be a black Avenir helmet, although no Avenirs appear inside. Sections: Recommendations, Australian Safety Standard, Retention, Ventilation, Helmet Weight, Photos and capsule summaries of 10 helmets. Produced by the Bicycle Institute of Victoria, Inc, The Environment Centre, 285 Lt. Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Phone 6633509. The photos make this an interesting approach, but it seems a little drab to the American eye. Leads off immediately with the advice to try the helmet on and see if you can tear it off, reflecting the Australian experience with two Taiwanese imports chronicled by Simons in BHSIDOCS #12. An earlier version of this pamphlet was done in black ink on flame red paper. Prior to that, BIV had a hand-written pamphlet which listed models and prices.


BHSIDOC #148

2 Page(s)

Media: Online from Bicycle Institute of Vic.



Bicycle Retailer & Industry News Staff,

Brancale and Two Distributors Must Pay $500,000 Settlement

Bicycle Retailer & Industry News Staff, July, 1992

07/01/92

The Italian helmet manufacturer Brancale and two of its distributors lost a lawsuit in New Mexico after a rider died in a crash where his helmet split. The settlement was $500,000, paid to the rider's sons.


BHSIDOC #482

1 Page(s)



Bicycle Retailer and Industry News Staff,

Selected articles on the bicycle industry

Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, previous twelve months.

01/01/95

BRIN consistently delivers more news on the helmet industry than any other source, and has given us permission to reproduce their articles with copyright notices intact. We have a selection of current ones available on our Fax-on-Demand service, and more on our Internet website. We update those monthly when BRIN arrives. This is a growing pack of articles from the past year's issues.


BHSIDOC #536

30 Page(s)



Bicycle USA Staff,

Pierce County Medical Encourages Helmets

Bicycle USA mag. of the League of American Wheelmen, Jan/Feb 1990

01/01/90

Pierce County Medical, a Blue Shield Plan in Washington state, will reimburse cyclists for any deductible costs they pay after a bicycle accident if they were wearing a helmet in the accident.


BHSIDOC #289

2 Page(s)



Bicycle USA staff,

USCF Improves Helmet Requirements

Bicycle USA mag. of the League of Am. Wheelmen,Nov./Dec.1985

11/01/85

Short article noting that the United States Cycling Federation will require all riders in USCF-sanctioned races to wear helmets meeting the ANSI standard as of January 1, 1986.


BHSIDOC #124

1 Page(s)



Bicycling Association of British Columbia,

Toptube Hanger - Top Gear: Get Your Head Into a Bike Helmet

Bicycle Association of British Columbia, Canada. 1988(?)

/ /

Single piece of heavy paper/light cardboard with a hole in the top designed to hang on the toptube of a new bicycle. Message: "Parents. A bicycle is not a toy, it's your child's first vehicle" Produced by the Bicycle Association of British Columbia (no address, telephone listed as 737-3034), the British Columbia Medical Association and the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia. An interesting approach, destined to be repeated elsewhere, to alerting bicycle buyers that they need one essential accessory.


BHSIDOC #141

2 Page(s)



Bicycling Association of British Columbia,

Pamphlet - Top Gear: Protect Your Child with a Bike Helmet

Bicycling Association of British Columbia, Canada. August, 1988

08/01/88

Six panel brochure in three colors printed on front and back of one standard 8.5 x 11 inch sheet. Covers "How do I Choose a Bike Helmet?" and "How Can I Get My Children to Wear Their Helmets?" and has short sections titled "Where Can I Get an ANSI Approved Helmet?" and "A Bicycle is not a Toy, It's Your Child's First Vehicle." Produced by the Bicycling Association of British Columbia, British Columbia Medical Association and Insurance Company of British Columbia. Our copy came from Seattle-King County Department of Public Health and the Cascade Bicycle Club, who state that they have permission to reprint.


BHSIDOC #142

2 Page(s)



Bicycling Magazine Staff,

How do Children Feel About Wearing Bicycle Helmets?

Bicycling Magazine, June, 1989

06/01/89

One paragraph article: "How do children feel about wearing bicycle helmets? According to a recent survey by Cheerios, 65% of American kids (17 years and younger) favor making helmet use mandatory for their age group. The cereal company received more than 135,000 responses to this and other questions in its survey."


BHSIDOC #272

1 Page(s)

Media: Entire article is quoted above.



Bicycling Magazine Staff,

Ride Right, Cycle Smart. A special section.

Bicycling Magazine, July, 1989

07/01/89

A special 8 page section on bicycle safety inserted in Bicycling Magazine and sponsored by Plymouth. Emphasizes helmets, avoiding hazards, skills, control and balance, signaling, and equipment checks.


BHSIDOC #245

9 Page(s)



Bike World Staff,

A Hard Look at Helmets

Bike World Magazine, August, 1977.

08/01/77

An overview article on helmets as of 1977. Highlights the lack of standards. Using data from an unspecified lab it ranks in order Bell Biker, MSR, Cool Gear, Skid Lid and various hockey helmets. (Accurate ratings except for the Skid Lid. The hockey helmets were downrated for cost and comfort.) Has a gruesome crash account and covers avoiding accidents, how you will be injured and the need for helmets. Calculates the probability of becoming a vegetable without a helmet. Good article for its time.


BHSIDOC #106

10 Page(s)



Bikecentennial Staff,

The Bikecentennial Airbag Helmet

BikeReport, mag. of Bikecentennial, April,1986.

04/01/86

A funny photo series showing an "airbag" helmet deploying as balloons emerge from under a baseball hat. Repeat of a 1984 article. Caption under this 1986 version urges everyone to wear an ANSI approved helmet. We attach a letter from Arthur Rosman presenting mock-technical criticisms which BikeReport printed in the February/March, 1984, issue.


BHSIDOC #78

2 Page(s)



Bikecentennial Staff,

New Helmet Standards

Bikereport, mag. of Bikecentennial, Vol 15,No.8,September,1989

09/01/89

A short article in their "In Bicycle Circles" section on the changes to the ANSI Z90.4 standard made by the ANSI committee in June, 1989. Quotes from the BHSI Helmet Update of July 12, 1989, on changes in the standard.


BHSIDOC #228

2 Page(s)



Bikecentennial Staff,

Clip Art: Biketoon Clip Art Sheet #16

Bikecentennial, Box 8308-NA, Missoula MT 59807, (406) 721-1776.

01/01/91

Clip art for newsletter editors with permission to reprint. Has two helmet cartoons, several helmeted riders, and The Bikecentennial Commuter Helmet, complete with umbrella, solar cell-powered radio, etc.


BHSIDOC #396

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Bikecentennial.



Bishop, Patrick J.

A Comparison of Selected Headforms Under Impact Conditions Prepared for the Canadian Standards Association

Paper

07/01/88

Various types of headforms were compared in similar drops. Concludes that at force level of 50.6J the failure criterion for each headform should be: ASTM (275g); ISO (250g); SWED (325g); and WSU/NOCSAE (190g). The study was done with hockey helmets. No headform proved superior to all others in uniformity at all test locations.


BHSIDOC #64

41 Page(s)



Bishop, Patrick J.

Tolerance Criteria for Bicycle Helmet Standard

Paper prepared for Canadian Standards Association c. 1988

/ /

Discussion of appropriate levels for failure criteria. Recommends level of 250 g for flat anvil impact at 80J and cylindrical anvil impact at 55J.


BHSIDOC #65

2 Page(s)



Bishop, Patrick J.

Impact Performance of Bicycle Helmets

Dr. Bishop

09/26/83

Results of Dr. Bishop's testing of bicycle helmets at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, in 1983 using Dr. Hodgson's NOCSAE headform. Seven models tested. Conclusion: "Clearly not all bicycle helmets provide equivalent levels of protection and some are much superior to others."


BHSIDOC #6

30 Page(s)



Bishop, Patrick J. et al.

Helmets: Put to the Test

Bicycling News Canada, Spring, 1984

03/21/84

Dr. Bishop tested seven bicycle helmets using the NOCSAE/Wayne State anthropomorphic headform. The same tests are reported in his paper available as BHSIDOC #6. A separate section of the article titled "Helmets: Voice of Dissent" was contributed by R. Kevin Montgomery, President of SkidLid. A final section by Denys Beames directs the reader to feel various lobes and bumps on the skull and then tells the dire consequences of injuring each spot.


BHSIDOC #74

6 Page(s)



Bleyer, Bill

Suffolk (NY) to Urge Bicycle-Helmet Law

Newsday, August 26, 1988

08/26/88

Article announcing intention of Suffolk, NY officials to lobby for a State law requiring helmets for bicyclists. Was actually a small part of an overall road safety campaign.


BHSIDOC #279

2 Page(s)



Blomberg, Richard D. et al.

Conspicuity for Pedestrians and Bicyclists: Definition of the Problem, Development and Test of Countermeasures. Final Report.

U.S. Dept. of Transportation, April, 1984 DOT HS-806 563

04/01/84

A detailed study of how to make pedestrians and bicyclists conspicuous in traffic at night. Available through the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161 as Report Number DOT HS 806 563. Additional authors were Allen Hale and David F. Preusser. They worked at Dunlop Associates, Norwalk CT.


BHSIDOC #73

140 Page(s)



Blomberg and Bishop,

Reducing Child Injury Through Bicycle Helmets: Res. Grant Proposal

Dunlap and Associates, Norwalk CT

12/14/91

A research proposal funded by the Centers for Disease Control to assess different means of persuading children at the fourth and fifth grade levels to use bicycle helmets. The study schools will use PTA and peer pressure to persuade students to use helmets riding to and from school. The final report will eventually replace this research design.


BHSIDOC #388

6 Page(s)



Boodman and Rovner,

The Risks of a Fall: Reagan's Brain Surgery Proves Head Injuries Shouldn't be Taken Lightly

Washington Post, September 12, 1989

09/12/89

A short article for the layman explaining subdural hematomas and how they occur. Cites a task force report by the Department of Health and Human Services with statistics: every 15 seconds someone in the U.S. suffers a head injury, more than two million Americans a year. Hospitalization is required for 500,000 of them. Of those who survive, 70,000 to 90,000 will endure a lifetime disability, 5,000 will develop epilepsy and 2,000 "will exist in a persistent vegetative state, unable to speak or move."


BHSIDOC #219

1 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Bowles, Jennifer

Helmet Makers Being Driven Overseas by Liability Suits

Times Tribune, January 6, 1992 (AP article)

01/06/92

Says liability lawsuits have driven motorcycle helmet manufacturing overseas. U.S. insurance companies refuse to issue product liability insurance, but foreign companies still do for their native manufacturers. Mentions Japan's Shoei and Arai, as well as Italy's Bieffe and Kiwi. Only Bell Helmets still makes motorcycle helmets in the U.S., but Bell also has an Italian factory. Says some motorcyclists believe the lawsuits show that helmets don't work.


BHSIDOC #435

1 Page(s)



Boyce, Bob

Seeking Cyclist Safety: Engineer Takes a Hard Look at a Soft Subj.

News in Engineering, Ohio State U. College of Engr, Summer 1989

06/21/89

An article on Professor Richard L. Stalnaker's efforts to develop the optimum bicycle helmet standard. Quotes Stalnaker saying that current standards "are too abstract and don't correspond to specific injuries that result when a bicyclist hits his head on the pavement." And "if the standards were directed to the forces which the head encounters, then padding could be applied or reduced more accurately." His ideal helmet is said to be one which would absorb the energy of the impact and completely disintegrate while doing so. His goal is said to be "to help make bicycle helmets so inexpensive, lightweight, comfortable, and effective that their use would be practically unavoidable."


BHSIDOC #225

1 Page(s)



Boyle, William E.

Epidemiology of Bicycle Injuries in Children

Unpublished paper for presentations to Safe Kids Coalition, 1989

03/01/89

A compendium of statistics on bicyclist deaths and injuries in the U.S. Valuable for quick numbers for speeches.


BHSIDOC #151

2 Page(s)



Bradtmiller, et al, Bruce

The Development of a 3-D Data Base of Head and Facial Anthropometry For Children and Youths

Anthropology Research Project, Yellow Springs, OH

10/18/94

A highly technical study sponsored by Snell of children's head sizes. It is intended for helmet manufacturers and test headform designers to improve sizing accuracy. Measured 1,035 children with a 3D laser scanner from samples stratified by age, race and region of the U.S. Concludes that head circumference and age are not adequate to determine head shape. Breadth and length are the key measurements to produce accurately shaped headforms, or to select a helmet for a child which will fit correctly. Developed four sizes--small, medium narrow, medium wide and large--based on three lengths and two widths, which should fit all children given normal changes in fitting foam thickness. The resultant headforms are very similar to ISO E, J and M headform shapes now in use in test labs, except for the width of the two medium sizes. Our copy of this study is stamped "UPDATED 03 February 1995." Available free from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #511

183 Page(s)

Media: From the Snell Foundation.



Brain Injury Research Center,

Get Into the Helmet Habit/Adquiera el Habito del Casco - Pamphlet

Brain Injury Research Center

01/01/95

A nice two color pamphlet in English and Spanish. Printed on legal-sized coated paper with a double fold, it uses blue English text and red Spanish text with the graphics spaced well to work with either language. Distributed by the Brain Injury Research Center, 4007 Bellaire Blvd, Suite EE, Houston, TX 77025, phone (713) 666-9550.


BHSIDOC #585

2 Page(s)



British Columbia Medical Association,

Heads Up

Tri-City News, Port Coquitlam, BC, Canada, May 5, 1991.

05/05/91

Lists bicycle crash facts and statistics, some questionable ("Ninety percent of bicycle deaths occur when a child on a bicycle darts into traffic from a driveway or ignores a stop sign."), but mostly on-target. BCMA advocates mandatory helmets for all BC cyclists and has asked the Canadian Cycling Association to adopt a mandatory helmet rule for all sanctioned races.


BHSIDOC #399

1 Page(s)



British Standards Institution,

Specification for Protective Helmets for Pedal Cyclists BS 4544: 1970

British Standards Institution publication.

01/01/70

Former British standard, eventually withdrawn. We do not distribute it because of BSI's copyright restrictions on current standards. Copies may be available from British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London W1A 2BS, United Kingdom. Their telephone number in the UK is 01-629-9000. Of historical interest only, but shows what unique features were once used by the Brits and then dropped.


BHSIDOC #22

13 Page(s)

Media: FROM BSI OR ANSI, NOT US!



British Standards Institution,

British Standard Specification for Pedal Cyclists' Helmets BS 6863: 1987

British Standards Institution, London

01/01/87

Current British standard for bicycle helmets. Requires a one meter drop onto flat and "kerbstone" (rounded ridge) anvils with no more than 300 g acceleration. Retention test requires helmet not come off modified headform equipped with a "jawbone" and an acrylic wig when back edge jerked upward by hook. Strap strength test drops a 10 kg weight 300 mm. Strap abrasion is tested. Strap ear clearance provision has apparently been unmeetable and waivers have reportedly been issued to manufacturers pending revision. Calls out twin-wire drop rig and BS 6489 headforms. Many other differences from other standards. Due to copyright restrictions it must be obtained from British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London W1A 2BS, United Kingdom, or from ANSI, 1430 Broadway, NY 10018. (212) 354-3300.


BHSIDOC #23

16 Page(s)

Media: FROM BSI OR ANSI, NOT US!



Brown, George

Project Head First comic book and coloring book.

Head First Promotions, P.O.Box 1746, Plainville, MA 02762

06/01/92

A comic book by Superstar Comics and coloring book by George Brown said to feature police and other role models in bicycle helmets. The coloring book is for grades K-3 and the comic is for grades 4 and up. We have not seen the actual books and do not have copies. Available from Head First Promotions, P. O Box 1746, Plainville, MA 02762, (508) 695-0353. Price as of 6/92 was $195 for 300 including shipping.


BHSIDOC #419

0 Page(s)

Media: ONLY FROM HEAD FIRST PROMOTIONS, NOT BHSI!



Brown, Sheldon C.

Hard Selling Helmets...Isn't It? Ideas to Make This Sale Easier

American Bicyclist and Motorcyclist, April, 1989

04/01/89

Ideas from a shopowner about how to sell helmets. Also has a listing of many of the helmets available on the U.S. market, with photos of some but no addresses for manufacturers. One page of text on selling helmets and one page on the need for children to wear them, including the author's bad experience with child seats.


BHSIDOC #197

5 Page(s)



Brunt, Craig, Tait,

Design of a Lightweight Safety Helmet for Bicyclists Group Design Project for the Diploma in Engineering

U. of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, UK

05/01/89

A dissertation on helmet design by three engineering students under Dr. Chris Morfey. Describes the design, manufacture and evaluation of a bike helmet. Chapters: Introduction, How Bicycle Helmets are Tested, Current Helmet Designs, Biomechanics Survey, Design of the Helmet, Theoretical Design Work, The Test Facilities, Prototype Helmet Manufacture, Testing and Development Work, Final Design, Conclusions and Recommendations, References. The prototype was projected to sell at US$50 and would be considered unstylish in the current U.S. market.


BHSIDOC #227

133 Page(s)



Buell, Mark

Head Saver: How Does Your Helmet Work?

Bicycling Magazine, April, 1982

04/01/82

Covers how a helmet works, including shell, liner, comfort padding, retention system, after an accident, the coming ANSI standard. Has photos and capsule comments on five helmets, including Bell Biker, Bailen, Hanna Pro, Pro-Tec and SkidLid.


BHSIDOC #103

4 Page(s)



Burke, Edmund R.

Safety Standards for Bicycle Helmets

The Physician and Sportsmedicine, Vol 16, No. 1, January, 1988

01/01/88

General rundown on helmets and standards for physicians. Good article by Ed Burke, now Director of New Product Development at Spenco. Has a list of 36 ANSI or Snell helmets.


BHSIDOC #44

4 Page(s)



Burke, Edmund R.

Head Injury, Helmets and the Cyclist Parts I, II and III

Cycling USA Magazine (USCF magazine), Aug-Nov 1985

08/01/85

A good discussion of helmets for the racing set, concentrating on the biological effects of head injury. Designed to give pause to those who would race without a helmet. Part III discusses comfort and provides a list from WABA of helmets meeting ANSI or Snell standards.


BHSIDOC #54

5 Page(s)



Burke, Edmund R.

Hard Hats

Sport Care and Fitness, Vol 2, No. 2, March/April, 1989

03/01/89

Another good general article on helmets by Ed Burke, reaching another audience among the sports medicine community. This one is fairly short. Lists 40 helmet models meeting Snell or ANSI specs.


BHSIDOC #198

3 Page(s)



Burke, Ed and Fritschner, Diane

Get A Head Start

United States Cycling Federation, November, 1985

11/01/85

USCF's pamphlet for their racers. Nicely done in an authoritative presentation. Sections on brain structure, head injury, helmet design, helmet tests, effects of g level exposure, standards, comfort, WABA's ratings of 24 helmets. USCF is at 1750 E. Boulder Street, Colorado Springs, CO 80909, telephone (303) 578-4681. The original is much more impressive than our monochrome Printed on paper.


BHSIDOC #139

9 Page(s)

Media: From USCF (see note)



Burns, Richard

How Hot the Hat?

Bike World, September, 1975

09/01/75

First report of a scientific test of helmet coolness. Dick Burns put sensors on his head and rode around with his Bell Biker on. Results indicated a cooler head (in sun) with helmet than without. Preceded any other published article on this subject by at least ten years. Bike World Magazine flourished for a short time in the mid-1970's.


BHSIDOC #102

2 Page(s)



CEN - European Norms Center,

European standard: Helmets for Pedal Cyclists. Draft prEN 1078

Centre for European Norms (CEN) Tech. Committee CEN/TC 158 N 82

04/01/93

Seventh draft of a European bicycle helmet standard. Summary: 1.5 m drops onto flat and kerbstone anvils without exceeding 250g, strap test using 10 kg weight dropped 30 cm, uses EN 960 headforms (previous drafts called out ISO headforms) and requires 16 samples. Has other wrinkles included in our Standards Comparison (BHSIDOC #185).


BHSIDOC #363

10 Page(s)



Cameron, Heiman, Neiger,

Eval. of the Bicycle Helmet Wearing Law in Victoria During Its First 12 Months

Monash U. Accident Research Center Report #32, July, 1992

07/01/92

In post-helmet law Victoria, this study found that helmet wearing rates rose from 31% to 75%, while cyclists killed or hospitalized with head injuries in Melbourne fell 41%. Cyclists hospitalized or killed from any cause dropped by 8%. Child riders fell by 36% after the law was passed. Adult riders increased by 58%, but that was over a base established in 1987-88, two years earlier. Critics of helmet laws maintain that the law was responsible for the drop in child riders. The study notes that when non-bicycle injuries are included, all injuries and deaths on the road dropped 12%, indicating factors not related to bicycles. In fact, the various analytical explorations in this study cannot isolate the effect of the helmet law, since other factors are at work. There was a decrease in teen riders, for example, but the minimum age for driving permits was lowered from 18 to 17 during this period. The authors found that injury reduction was significantly below what was predicted, but the predicted regression line had head injuries falling to zero, which was clearly unrealistic, and it was to happen before wearing rates reached 100%. This thorough and well-done study is being cited in various articles to prove anything the reader wanted proven about the effects of helmet laws.


BHSIDOC #460

74 Page(s)



Cameron, M.H. & Heiman, L.,

Effects of the Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Wearing Law in Victoria

Monash University Accident Research Center, Australia

01/01/92

The first page of an article (we do not have the rest) on effects of mandatory helmet laws in Victoria. Conclusions: "substantial" increase in helmet wearing rates, reaching 73 to 92 percent by group except for secondary school students in Melbourne (40 to 50 per cent). If anyone has the rest of this article, we need it, since the info on this page is scanty at best.


BHSIDOC #446

1 Page(s)



Canadian Standards Association,

Revisions to 4th Draft of CSA Standard D113.2-M Bicycle Helmets

Canadian Standards Association - Letter from Donna French

02/07/89

A summary of changes in the fourth draft of the Canadian bicycle helmet standard, since replaced by the final standard.


BHSIDOC #62

8 Page(s)



Canadian Standards Association,

Canadian Bicycle Helmet Standard D113.2-M Fourth Draft

Canadian Standards Association

09/01/88

Fourth draft of the CSA bicycle helmet standard specified six single impacts on flat anvil at 80J (150? g max), flat anvil at 55J (200 g max), cylindrical anvil at 55J (200 g max). Strap strength tested by dynamic jerk produced by dropping 5 kg mass far enough to produce a 50J impact. For stability test a neck piece is attached to the headform, hook attached to front edge of helmet and a force of 250 N applied upwards, with helmet angle not changing more than a specified degree. Calls out ISO headforms and twin wire drop rig. New helmet test line designating test zone is being proposed. Note that some of these provisions were changed in the final standard.


BHSIDOC #66

23 Page(s)



Canadian Standards Association,

Cycling Helmets: A National Standard of Canada CAN/CSA-D113.2-M89

Canadian Standards Association

09/01/89

Canada's bicycle helmet standard exceeds the 1984 ANSI Z90.4 standard in all respects. Maximum allowable g's are 200 for the 1.6 meter flat anvil drop and 250 g's for the 1.1 meter cylindrical anvil drop (vs 300 g's for ANSI's 1 meter drops). The lower g levels encourage softer, thicker helmet liners. The Canadian strap strength test is much tougher and there is a rolloff test which is lacking in the 1984 ANSI standard. Essential provisions are compared with those of 8 other standards in BHSIDOC #185. This standard is available ONLY from CSA. Our single copy cost US$44 in January of 1990. Contact CSA for current pricing at 178 Rexdale Blvd., Rexdale, Ontario, M9W 1R3, Canada.


BHSIDOC #354

0 Page(s)

Media: FROM CSA, NOT BHSI!



Carlson Gielen et al,

Psychosocial Factors Associated With The Use of Bicycle Helmets Among Children in Countries with and Without Helmet Use Laws

Journal of Pediatrics, February, 1994

02/01/94

Relied on a mailed questionnaire to gather data on helmet use and relate it to the child's beliefs on the social consequences of wearing helmets and the extent to which their friends wear helmets. Found that promotion campaigns and laws had more effect than parental influence or risk perception. Recommends laws and fashionable helmets. We are skeptical of the value of the sampling techniques used, but this is an interesting study anyway.


BHSIDOC #532

7 Page(s)



Carter, Tom

Cyclists: Wear a Helmet, Keep Your Head Together

The Washington Times Magazine, March 26, 1984

03/26/84

Good general rundown on factors a cyclist should look for in a helmet, and why a cyclist should wear one. Capsule summaries of 8 helmets and coverage of Skid Lid views. Sidebar by UPI has statistics from Madison, WI, police department on cyclist injuries.


BHSIDOC #131

2 Page(s)



Cascade Bicycle Club,

Protect Your Child With...A Bicycle Helmet!

Cascade Bicycle Club, Seattle.

01/01/89

A well-designed children's helmet pamphlet with helmeted kids on the cover, How do I Choose A Safe Helmet, How Can I Get My Children To Wear Helmets, A Bicycle is Not a Toy, Where Can I Get and ANSI-Approved Helmet, and a clear cross-section of helmet construction using a hard-shell helmet for illustration.


BHSIDOC #281

2 Page(s)



Caton and Preston,

Tests of Selected Bicycle Helmets...

Consumer Product Safety Commission, July, 1990.

07/01/90

CPSC testing of 20 helmets from 12 manufacturers. One flunked the ANSI standard. Concludes ANSI standard needs clarification, one helmet flunked ANSI impact test, one sample flunked the ANSI strap test, 18 failed to meet labeling requirements, no difference in performance of hard, thin and soft-shells, different sizes and models of headforms did not affect impact data, ANSI standard needs a positional stability (rolloff) test. The only recent U.S. Government study of bicycle helmet performance, but CPSC refused to release the identity of the 20 helmets, limiting its usefulness. Taxpayers paid for the data but can not have it.


BHSIDOC #364

16 Page(s)



Cellesche Zeitung,

Adults Should Set Good Example in Helmet Use (in German)

Cellesche Zeitung (German newspaper), April 6, 1995

04/06/95

An article in German with English translation and comments by Ralph Hirsch noting the kickoff of a German government campaign to promote voluntary bicycle helmet use. The government rejected calls for a helmet law. At present only about three percent of German cyclists wear helmets.


BHSIDOC #587

1 Page(s)



Changing Times staff,

Health & Fitness: Bicycle Helmets: Heads-Up Advice

Changing Times magazine, probably 1986

/ /

A pithy article summarizing WABA's Consumer's Guide to Bicycle Helmets, fairly typical of a number of articles in general interest magazines where the Guide has been mentioned and readers have been told they can have a copy by sending WABA a stamped self-addressed envelope and a dollar. Each article generates many requests.


BHSIDOC #134

1 Page(s)



Chichester, C.O.

Minutes of the ANSI Z90 Committee meeting in NY June 4, 1985

Snell Memorial Foundation

09/16/85

Dr. Chichester's minutes highlighted discussion of various aspects of the standard, and two subcommittees were formed to undertake further work on a review of headforms and a dynamic retention test. Bell made a motion to remove Snell Foundation as secretariat (motion failed). Attached is Marshall Irving's suggestion for a retention test using a human subject, fastening strap and trying to tear helmet off of head.


BHSIDOC #113

9 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Clarke, Colin

Helmet Headaches: Research Findings Turn up the Heat

Bike Culture Quarterly, Open Road Ltd., UK May, 1995

05/01/95

The author concludes that helmeted riders are over-represented in injury statistics, and that the helmets themselves are the cause. He believes it is due to a combination of risk compensation, "vibration and rapid accelerations to the head and helmet," and impairment of balance. Surprisingly, he does not mention the buildup of heat and impairment of hearing, two more questions cited by anti-helmet Brits. In mid-1995 this article was available on the Internet. We do not have a more recent URL for it.


BHSIDOC #558

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or online.



Coffman, Bill

Heads Up: Which Bicycle Helmet Offers the Best Protection?

Bicycle Ontario, mag. of Ontario Cycling Assn, Winter 1985

01/01/85

Answers the question "which helmet offers the best protection?" by telling reader to look for ANSI Z90.4 or Snell 1984 bicycle standard sticker. They were concerned that when the ANSI standard was promulgated some U.S. manufacturers might dump non-ANSI helmets on the Canadian market. Notes that Canada had no bicycle helmet standard. Discusses state of manufacturing in Canada and tariff of 15.6% which raises price to consumer.


BHSIDOC #112

1 Page(s)



Colyer, Hallam, Hui, Lewis, Morfey,

User Acceptability and Economic Benefits of Hard-Shell Bicycle Helmets--Results of a U.K. Survey.

Proceedings of 1986 IRCOBI Conf. on Biomech. of Impacts, Zurich

09/02/86

Estimates the potential reduction in hospital stays from helmet use and calculates savings. British cyclists suffer 220 fatalities and over 100 cases of permanent brain damage each year. Analyzes helmet attitudes from 589 questionnaires. Four percent were regular helmet users and another four percent had helmets they did not wear regularly. Half would purchase a helmet if the price were $25-32. Forty-four percent cited "insufficient risk" as the reason they do not use helmets.


BHSIDOC #192

12 Page(s)



Colyer, Hallam, Hui, Lewis, Thorpe,

Marketing Assessment for Bicycle Helmets in the U.K. Submitted as part requirement of the Diploma of Engineering

Faculty of Engineering, U. of Southampton, UK

05/01/86

Surveys British attitudes on helmets, finding that most do not wear them because they are considered unnecessary, inconvenient, costly, unsightly and uncomfortable. Concludes that head injury to cyclists costs U.K. society $90 million annually. Compulsory use would cost $105 million the first year and $35 million per year thereafter, so was judged to have marginal benefit to society. Found that hard shell helmets can be made in the U.K. for $16 each, while most consumers were willing to pay less than $25 for one. Concludes that until government or the manufacturers take the initiative, "helmets will remain a topic of conversation restricted to cycling enthusiasts rather than a commonplace reality."


BHSIDOC #201

102 Page(s)



Commission de Securite des Consommateurs,

Helmets for Cyclists (Casques pour cyclistes)

Commission de Securite des Consommateurs, France, Newsletter

07/01/95

Europe has a new bicycle helmet standard, but the EEC is not ready to take any action on mandatory bicycle helmets. The Commission says it is in contact with cycling groups and aware that there is no consensus in Europe on mandatory helmet laws. It also notes that no member country requires helmets. It has begun a data collection project. We include the original article from the July-September, 1995, newsletter of the French Consumer Safety Commission and our English translation. Available on our website.


BHSIDOC #572

2 Page(s)



Compressed Air Magazine,

Using Your Head

Compressed Air, a Div. of Ingersoll-Rand Corp., Oct/Nov 1994

10/01/94

A brief but interesting general history of helmets, including military, industrial and football. Departs from the historic coverage at the end to give a general description of today's bicycle helmets, quoting BHSI and Snell. This is Ingersoll-Rand's company magazine.


BHSIDOC #515

6 Page(s)



Consumer Reports,

Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers

Consumer Reports, May, 1990.

05/01/90

Rates 34 bicycle helmets by brand and model, primarily on impact performance and retention system. Uses a "softest landing" criterion for impact testing as if head injury were not a threshold phenomenon. Calls hard shells "heavy" and says they "cluster at the bottom of the ratings, perhaps because the hard shell distributes the force of the impact in such a way that the blow is transferred to the head and not absorbed by crushing the foam." Since this article appeared, hard shells have all but disappeared from the market. On sliding resistance says "hard evidence is lacking so far." Highest ratings: Bell Quest (since replaced with a new model, same name), Performance Enduro, Paramount Team Issue and Specialized. Finds Avenir, Avenir Advantage, Monarch Aerojet and Spaulding Youth "unacceptable." A landmark article, very well done. If you read only one thing on helmets in 1990 it should be this. Send $3 for Reprint RO99 to CU, Reprints Dept, 101 Truman Ave., Yonkers, NY 10703-1057.


BHSIDOC #335

0 Page(s)

Media: FROM CONSUMER REPORTS, NOT BHSI!



Consumer Reports,

Bicycle Helmets

Consumer Reports magazine of Consumers Union, August, 1994

08/01/94

Covers general info and features of current helmets, then rates 33 models by impact performance, ease of use, ventilation, and weight. Top picks for impact performance: Trek Micro, Schwinn Aeroflight and Bell Image (not the Image Pro, which scored lower. We believe that the Bell Image is available in 1995 as the Cannondale HT-500). Impact ratings based on softest-landing approach rather than threshold g level, so best performers, which kept g's below 200 in the impact test, may be ideal for seniors if in fact senior brains are proven to be more brittle than youngsters. CU tested only on flat anvil, leaving out the hemispheric anvil and other anvils required by the various standards. CU's personalized rolloff tests awarded good marks to the three helmets cited above and a number of others. CU did not make a distinction between Snell's independent certification and manufacturers' self-certification under other standards. Many helmets listed are already not available in 1995, and most will not be around by the next season, but the article will be useful for general information until the next one appears in another four years. CU is at present the only organization in the world publishing comparative impact test results on bicycle helmets. We now have copies of this article for distribution, but had to pay CU 35 cents each for the privilege.


BHSIDOC #526

0 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Consumer's Digest,

Consumerscope: Bike Safety: Not Chic, But a Must

Consumers Digest, March/April, 1991

03/01/91

This one-column article is more savvy than the unfortunate headline indicates. Emphasizes the Snell standard and getting a good fit. On strap tightness, says "if you can yawn without discomfort, the strap is too loose." Mentions BHSI.


BHSIDOC #349

1 Page(s)



Cornell Cooperative Extension,

Pamphlet - The Facts About Bicycling

Cornell Cooperative Extension, Ithaca, N.Y. 1987 (?)

/ /

A six panel pamphlet on both sides of a standard sheet of heavy yellow stock in black ink. Nice graphics, uncluttered look. Features a Parent Alert, basics to teach children, some facts on injuries and points to look for in a helmet. Project director is Lois Chaplin, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 328 Riley-Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853, telephone (607) 255-2498.


BHSIDOC #146

2 Page(s)



Corner, J. P. et al.

Motorcycle and Bicycle Protective Helmets: Requirements Resulting From a Post-Crash Study and Experimental Research

Dept. Transport, Canberra, Australia.

05/01/87

A big study, well written up. Concludes that foam liners are too stiff (using a Hodgson headform). Uses retention data from a sled. We had some reservations about their conclusions from the testing, particularly the lack of correlation of the "too-stiff" thesis with actual field experience showing that serious injuries were occurring without crushing of the too-stiff foam liners. This study is worthy of considerable analysis.


BHSIDOC #52

174 Page(s)



Coron, Jonathan

Planning a University-Wide Bicycle Helmet Campaign

Eta Sigma Gamma (health science honorary) Monograph Series V.11, No 1

07/01/93

Step-by-step formula for organizing a campus campaign. Steps include problem determination, creating a motivated coalition, involving University administration, using focus groups, goals, interventions, media, finances, evaluation, institutionalizing the program and implications for health educators. Presents a mix of principles and detailed tips.


BHSIDOC #516

5 Page(s)



Cote, et al,

Bicycle Helmet Use Among MD Children

Pediatrics, Vol 89, No. 6, June, 1992

06/01/92

We missed this one when it came out in 1992. It reports on increases in helmet use by children after laws were passed in Howard (4% to 47%) and Montgomery (8% to 19%) counties. Samples were small (246 on July 28, 1990, and 202 on May 4, 1991). There is no explanation for observations in Baltimore County (where no laws were passed) of 19% in 1990 and 4% in 1991, although those outcomes were within statistical confidence levels for the small sample, and variations due to season and day of week are. The increase in Howard County is attributed to promotion in addition to passage of the law.


BHSIDOC #496

3 Page(s)



Cross, Ken

Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Accident Types

Paper presented at Bike Ed '77 Conference, D.C., May 4-6, 1977

05/04/77

The basics of "The Ken Cross Study" on motor vehicle/bicycle accidents. Full study is available free from AAA Traffic Safety Foundation, 1730 M Street N.W., Suite 41, Washington, D.C. 20036. Not strictly speaking a helmet article, but such a basic reference in the field that we list it.


BHSIDOC #125

17 Page(s)



Crowley Foods, Inc.,

Milk Carton

Crowley's 2% Lowfat Milk, Crowley Foods, Binghamton, NY 13902.

01/01/91

A 1991 milk carton featuring the message "Bicycle Helmets can Protect You Against Head Injury. May is National Bicycle Month. New York State Department of Health." Has a smiling boy wearing a helmet and riding a bicycle.


BHSIDOC #384

1 Page(s)



Cushman, James, Waclawik, Runyan,

Public Health Briefs: Physicians Promoting Bicycle Helmets for Children

American Journal of Public Health, August, 1991.

08/01/91

Ottawa physicians counseled parents to buy their children bicycle helmets and gave them pamphlets. After two weeks only 7.2% had bought helmets, about equal to a control group who were not approached, surprising the authors. Concludes that physicians can do better working on multidisciplinary campaigns than approaching patients directly. An editorial agrees.


BHSIDOC #401

4 Page(s)



Cycle Industry News Staff,

New Bicycle Helmet Standards Proposed

Cycle Industry News, May, 1982

05/01/82

Report on the battle to adopt the ANSI Z90.4 bicycle helmet standard. Quotes George Snively extensively.


BHSIDOC #133

1 Page(s)



Cyclist Magazine Staff,

They're Lighter, But...Those "Beer Cooler" Helmets: Do They Work?

Cyclist Magazine (US), February 1988

02/01/88

A short but reasonable article on soft-shell helmets. Points out the differences in Snell certification vs. the manufacturer's claim that a helmet meets the ANSI standard.


BHSIDOC #84

3 Page(s)



Cyclist Magazine Staff,

Helmet Buyers Guide: Specifications on 24 Hard-Shell Helmets

Cyclist Magazine (US), Vol 3, No. 6, July 1986

07/01/86

Some brief basics followed by capsule statements on 24 helmets. No test data.


BHSIDOC #123

4 Page(s)



Cyclist Magazine Staff,

In the Pack: Keep Your Head

Cyclist Magazine, (US) October, 1985

10/01/85

A short summary of helmet advice citing WABA ratings.


BHSIDOC #132

1 Page(s)



Cyclist Magazine Staff,

"Helmets" and "10 Ultra-Light Helmets"

Cyclist Magazine, (US) July and December issues 1988

07/01/88

Two articles from this now-defunct magazine offer a general survey of helmets and a survey of ten all-EPS helmets.


BHSIDOC #270

6 Page(s)



Cyclists' Touring Club (UK),

Information: Cycle Helmets

CTC, Cotterell House, 69 Meadow, Godalming, Surrey GU7 3HS, UK.

04/07/88

CTC position opposing helmet promotion. A genuine curiosity. Concludes that helmets would save few lives because other injuries would kill most seriously-injured cyclists anyway, that no bicycle helmet could "give much protection from violent high-speed impacts involving motor vehicles," that helmets are uncomfortable, interfere with hearing and vision, and "cannot in any circumstances be regarded as an essential accessory to safe cycling." Authors believe helmet promotion would draw attention away from improving road safety. CTC decided to ignore a decade of experience of Swedish, Australian, Canadian and American riders. Apparently the writers are trying to justify their resistance to mandatory helmet laws.


BHSIDOC #169

8 Page(s)



Cyclists' Touring Club (UK),

Helmet Buyer's Guide and CTC Helmet Info Sheet policy statement

Cycle Touring and Campaigning, March 1991, and Info Sheet, Feb. 1991

03/01/91

Britain's CTC does not promote helmet wearing, saying it is "entirely neutral" but fears that helmet promotion will replace road safety improvements. CTC's Technical Officer decries well-intentioned "helmet evangelists." On Americans, he says "only now are they beginning to recognize the fatal error of over-zealous helmet promotion." Cites a 1988 Journal of Products Liability article showing "increased helmet use positively and significantly associated with an increased cycling fatality rate." Buyer's Guide article is thorough, objective and informative except for a "Why Wear a Helmet" section. A sample paragraph: "Moreover, it is impossible to predict whether wearing a helmet reduces or increases the possibility of being disabled by a cycling accident. A disabling head injury might well be saved, but on the other hand a fatal one might be rendered less severe, only to leave a disabling head or other injury." We add some letters published in November, 1991.


BHSIDOC #344

11 Page(s)



D'Ambrosio, Daniel

The Shell Game

BikeReport, magazine of Bikecentennial, June 1988

06/01/88

An overview of helmets, including the soft-shells, with a nicely personalized intro followed by many quotes from Randy Swart and the WABA Consumer's Guide to Bicycle Helmets. Also quotes John Williams of Bicycle Forum, Frederick Rivara of Harborview and Bill Wilkinson of the Bicycle Federation.


BHSIDOC #88

4 Page(s)



D.C. Department of Public Works,

Pamphlet - Buckle Up Your Baby: Bicycle Helmets for Children

D.C. Department of Public Works, Washington, D.C., 1988

/ /

A six-panel pamphlet in black ink on one regular size sheet of heavy yellow stock providing some good info for parents on child helmets. Covers Why Wear A Helmet?, What to Look for in a Helmet?, Helmets for Toddlers (AC, Bell, Etto, OGK, Protec, Amerpro, Troxel, Vetta), Helmets for Children (Bailen, Echo, MSR, Bell, Vetta, Kiwi), and Bicycle Safety Rules. Has a Peanuts cartoon on the back, and children on cover. From Bicycle Transportation and Safety Office, Department of Public Works, 2000 14th Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, telephone (202) 939-8016.


BHSIDOC #155

1 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, or from DCDPW at address noted.



D.C. Department of Transportation,

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Accidents - 1979

District of Columbia Dept. of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

01/01/80

An analysis of reported bicycle injuries in the District of Columbia during 1979. No helmet data.


BHSIDOC #126

14 Page(s)



D.C. Department of Transportation,

Report on 1981 Pedestrian and Bicycle Accidents in Wash., D.C.

Washington, D.C. Dept. of Transportation report. Final, Jan.1982

01/01/82

An analysis of where and how bicyclists were injured in the District of Columbia in 1981. No helmet data.


BHSIDOC #118

17 Page(s)



Dalluge, Jim

The Wrong Stuff Can Make Your Helmet Crazy

American Wheelmen, c. 1984-85

/ /

Article on how solvents can cause crazing in Lexan.


BHSIDOC #36

1 Page(s)



Dannenberg and Vernick,

A Proposal for the Mandatory Inclusion of Helmets with New Children's Bicycles

American Journal of Public Health, Vol83, No. 5, May, 1993

05/01/93

Proposes that a state or federal law require that a helmet be sold with each child's bicycle. States that the increased helmet demand would result in lower prices. Concludes that the increased ownership, with other educational, promotional and legal interventions, would be the most cost-effective strategy available to increase helmet usage and reduce head injuries to children from bicycle crashes. Limits the intervention to children for political acceptance, and because helmet use rates are lower for children. The logic parallels that for airbags and seatbelts in cars, but avoids the issue that helmets are considered apparel, not bicycle parts.


BHSIDOC #462

3 Page(s)



Dannenberg, Gielen, Beilenson, et al,

Bicycle Helmet Laws and Educational Campaigns: An Evaluation of Strategies to Increase Children's Helmet Use

American Journal of Public Health, MMMVol 83, No. 5, May, 1993

05/01/93

The researchers mailed surveys to elementary school children in three Maryland school districts: one had a helmet law plus a helmet education program, one had just an education program, and one had no formal program. The kids reported in the first district that their helmet use had risen from 11% to 37% after the law took effect. In the second they reported an increase from 8% to 13%, and in the no action district a rise from 7% to 11%. The researchers concluded that helmet legislation combined with education is most effective. Surveys of elementary school children produce questionable data, but at least an attitude change is strongly indicated. Some effort was made to confirm with street observations, but the samples were small.


BHSIDOC #456

8 Page(s)

Media: paper.



Dannenberg, et al,

Bicycle Helmet Use by Adults: The Impact of Companionship

Public Health Reports Vol. 108, No. 312, March-April 1993

03/01/93

Reports on data gathered during an evaluation of helmet laws in three Maryland counties. Solo adult cyclists wore helmets 52 per cent of the time, while only 5 per cent of solo child riders wore them. When cyclists appeared in pairs, they both had helmets or both had bare heads in 87 per cent of adult pairs, 94 per cent of child-child pairs, and 91 per cent of child-adult pairs. Concludes that adults and children tend to adopt the helmet-wearing behaviors of their companions.


BHSIDOC #531

6 Page(s)



Davis, Robert

Death on the Streets: Cars and the Mythology of Road Safety

Leading Edge Press, Hawes, UK, 1992/3

01/01/93

Believes that cars are the road safety problem. Taxation should reduce them to 1970 mileage levels. Seat belt laws "contributed to a road environment that was significantly more dangerous for cyclists.." After Australia introduced helmet laws, "the chances of suffering injuries--including head injuries--seem to have actually increased as a result of the law." Says BHSI "did not discuss" an anti-helmet study, then admits in a footnote buried at the end of the book in six point type that we did in fact refer to it. (Actually, we identified the study and quoted its most significant finding verbatim.) Says that in the US and Australia the helmet "functions as an important symbol: the sign of the serious cyclist who buys their way into a car-dominated arena where tolerance will properly follow only if the emblem is displayed." Actions to encourage cycling "can be taken: reduction of prices on breathable waterproof rainwear, removal of VAT, educational campaigns in schools aimed at encouraging cycle use etc." We have only one copy of this book but will lend it to anyone who requests it.


BHSIDOC #454

302 Page(s)

Media: You can borrow our copy.



DeMoss, Virginia

Top Hats: Your Guide to 22 Manufacturers' Best Bike Helmets

Bicycle Guide, June, 1994.

06/01/94

You need a helmet, your old one may need replacing after three years, helmets have improved, thin shells are best, foam can be EPS, GECET or EPP, standards can be ANSI, ASTM or Snell, fit is important, lists key features of 39 helmets with materials, standards met, sizes, colors, and suggested retail price. Has a list of suppliers and 26 photos. Quotes Dave Thom and Terry Smith of USC extensively, ensuring good information. But the author fails to make the distinction between Snell's certification program and other standards, and inaccurately states that the first Snell standard appeared in 1984, rather than 1970. These are minor points in an otherwise interesting article.


BHSIDOC #528

6 Page(s)



Dean Medical Center,

Bicycle Safety: Hats off to Helmets

Pamphlet, Dean Medical Center, (Madison WI?)

01/01/89

A doctor's pamphlet emphasizing family cycling (nice photos) with basics on helmets, standards, injury rates, fit. Says "injury and death rates from bicycle accidents are highest among children."


BHSIDOC #257

4 Page(s)



Demes, Joan Catherine

New Jersey Governor Signs Sweeping Bike Helmet Bill Into Law

Safe Kids Campaign Update, January/February, 1992

01/01/92

Outlines the provisions of the New Jersey helmet law for kids under 14. Quotes the bill's sponsor and some of the organizations who worked for passage.


BHSIDOC #423

2 Page(s)



Derven, John

Lightweight Helmets

Bicycle Guide, May, 1988.

05/01/88

A good article about soft-shell helmets by an author who understands the technical side of helmets. Discusses pros and cons, and lists specs for 7 soft-shells.


BHSIDOC #89

6 Page(s)



Derven, John

The Innovators: Jim Gentes

Bicycle Guide, February, 1990

02/01/90

A profile of Jim Gentes, founder of Giro Sports Design and designer of the Giro helmets.


BHSIDOC #264

0 Page(s)



Deutsches Institut fur Normung,

DIN Norm for Cyclists' Helmets -- Draft

Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN), German standards org.

02/01/91

Draft for a German bicycle helmet standard. In German, not translated. Appears to use a one meter drop. Copies from DIN, Postfach 11 07, 1000 Berlin 30, Germany.


BHSIDOC #374

6 Page(s)

Media: FROM DIN, NOT BHSI!



Dextrase, Serge

Press Release: CADEX, Inc.

Cadex (a commercial provider of test headforms)

12/09/94

Describes the CADEX line of magnesium headforms, manufactured to ISO specs. CADEX also provides spherical impactors, MEP pads and accessory equipment for headforms including clamp holders and ball shafts. Prices for their two-piece headforms with full formed bottom pieces suitable for rolloff retention system tests run about $1900 each.


BHSIDOC #517

2 Page(s)



DiGuiseppi et al,

Bicycle Helmet Use by Children: Evaluation of a Community-wide Helmet Campaign

JAMA, Vol 262, #16, October 27, 1989

10/27/89

Reports on observations of child helmet use including 9,827 children observed, with results of a community helmet promotion campaign increasing helmet use in one area from 4.6% to 14.4% and in another area from 1.0% to 3.6%. Notes differences in helmet use by race of rider, type of bicycle, location of riding. Concludes that a community promotion campaign can increase use of helmets by children. Twenty-six references.


BHSIDOC #268

6 Page(s)



Dimond, Guy

Keeping Your Lid On

New Cyclist (UK), 4 September 1993

09/04/93

Sales of helmets in the UK have rebounded after dropping when their national consumer magazine (Which?) published a controversial article in 1991 (BHSIDOC #371) flunking a number of helmets. This article says "the industry" now considers the Snell standard to be the most relevant and useful one. It covers basics on construction, ventilation, materials, weight and other elements. Has actual weights--not manufacturers' claims--for the 16 models reviewed. Prices seem very high: Giro Ventoux $148; Specialized Sub 6 $120; lowest range $37). A well-done article from an interesting magazine by a British author with no axes to grind.


BHSIDOC #499

6 Page(s)



Dimond, Guy

Keep Your Lid On

New Cyclist (UK), September, 1993

09/01/93

Representing the rational side of British helmet advocacy, this is a fine article. It covers the Which? consumer magazine gaffe of 1991, saying that "confused readers lost confidence in cycle helmets, and sales dropped." Sales have now recovered to a million helmets per year. Goes on to cover new developments, features, standards and weights. Prices cited seem high by today's standards. We were late adding this 1993 article to the bibliography.


BHSIDOC #519

6 Page(s)



Dixon, Jim and Focus Staff,

Canadian standards articles.

Pedal Magazine (October, 1989) and Focus (Summer, 1990)

10/01/89

Articles on the 1989 Canadian Standards Association bicycle helmet standard. Jim Dixon's article in Pedal Magazine covers CSA itself, development of the standard, and its main requirements. The Focus article has further Canadian background based in part on information from Bill Coffman, who chairs the CSA committee.


BHSIDOC #325

8 Page(s)



Dorsch, Margaret M. et al.

Do Bicycle Safety Helmets Reduce Severity of Head Injury in Real Crashes?

Road Accident Research Unit, University of Adelaide, South Australia

08/01/84

Study based on mail questionnaires to those who crashed. Distinguishes between hairnets and good helmets, and has a discussion of sources of bias in the study. Estimates that an unhelmeted cyclist runs a 4 to 19-fold higher risk of death than a helmeted cyclist. Concludes that helmets which score well in lab tests actually perform best on the road.


BHSIDOC #67

30 Page(s)



Dreger, Donald R.

How Dependable Are Accelerated Weathering Tests

Machine Design Magazine, November 29, 1973

11/29/73

A survey of weathering test techniques with some info on the nature of weathering.


BHSIDOC #199

7 Page(s)



Dunham, Mary Frances

A Matter of Choice

Bicycle Forum #16, Summer 1987

07/15/87

Describes how Ms. Dunham avoids needing a helmet: ride slowly, use an undersized bike, yield right of way to everything. She wants to make certain she never has any accidents at all, much less one where her head might be at risk, and believes she can do that by being ultra-safe. Thought-provoking.


BHSIDOC #83

2 Page(s)



Earnest, Les

Cyclops USA: The Brain Bucket Bash

Cyclops USA newsletter

01/09/89

Les Earnest's very personal publication on events in the United State Cycling Federation (published by "Liability Press") devotes an issue to the USCF's adoption in 1986 of a helmet rule for U.S. racers. Covers "The Brain Bucket Bash: Skirmishes, 1985 Report and The Big Decision." Earnest supported the helmet rule on the USCF Board, noting that "everyone who races crashes periodically." Copies from Les Earnest, Editor, Cyclops USA, 12769 Dianne Drive, Los Altos Hills, CA 94022, telephone (415) 941-3984 or from BHSI.


BHSIDOC #212

22 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Les Earnest (address above)



Eau Claire Police Department,

Bike Helmets: A Study of Their Use by Children of the Eau Claire Area

Eau Clair (Wisconsin, USA) Police Department, Summer, 1992

08/05/92

Eau Claire had a federal grant and surveyed 1,300 4th and 5th graders for attitudes and reported helmet use. Twenty per cent said they owned bike helmets and used them every time they ride (25 per cent), almost every time (40 per cent), when someone makes them (18 per cent) or usually not (17 per cent). Of the eighty per cent who do not own helmets, 45 percent never wanted one, 23 cent thought them too expensive, 11 per cent thought them uncomfortable, 10 percent thought it was not cool to wear one and three per cent said they were too hot in summer. Sixty per cent said they thought helmets prevent injuries, including 76 per cent of those who said they owned helmets and 57 per cent of those who did not. Twenty-seven per cent said they did not think they needed a helmet because of the type of riding they do. Forty four per cent said they had been injured in a bike crash, a total of 1,799 injuries. Interesting numbers even if kids often do not respond accurately to surveys of this type, and the age range was very narrow.


BHSIDOC #556

22 Page(s)



Eichelberger and Riggenbach,

Face Off: Bike Helmets for Kids

USA Today, June 7, 1989

06/07/89

Pro and con columns on bike helmets. Dr. Martin Eichelberger presents rational and well-formulated reasons why children should wear helmets, and argues for a national helmet standard. Jeff Riggenbach's "Keep Government's Hands Off Helmets" only reacts to the national standard part of Eichelberger's column, saying that parents must take care of their children without government help in the form of a standard.


BHSIDOC #210

1 Page(s)



Ekman and Welander,

Effectiveness of Bicycle Safety Helmets Among Children in Skaraborg, Sweden--Abstract only.

Karolinska Institute and Skaraborg Dept of Health Promotion

01/01/88

Skaraborg subsidizes helmets for four year olds. Surveys showed 50% used the subsidies and 79% wore helmets. Hospital data showed a 25% to 40% reduction in concussion cases for children under 14 despite worsening traffic and accidents. Even mild head injuries can cause long term concentration difficulty, aggressiveness, headaches, light and sound sensitivity problems and balance problems. For a town with socialized medicine, helmets can be an important cost reduction measure.


BHSIDOC #370

3 Page(s)



Elliott, B. J.

Bikesafe 86 Report of the Nat'l Bicycle Safety Conf., Newcastle, Australia. Equipment Session only.

Bikesafe 86 Report

04/30/86

Discussion of strategies for helmet promotion.


BHSIDOC #20

27 Page(s)



Ellis, et al,

Bicycle Safety Equipment

Clinics in Sports Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 1, January 1994

01/01/94

A physician's guide to bicycle safety equipment. Covers the physician's role, risk management, helmets (construction, types, fit, standards), eye protection, shoes, gloves, tights, saddles, lights, reflectors, brakes, suspension systems, fenders, rims and tires. Reprint requests to: Timothy Ellis, MS ATC, Sports Medicine Center, 2255 South 132nd Street, Omaha, NE 68144.


BHSIDOC #545

13 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Timothy Ellis.



European Committee for Standardization - CEN,

Helmets for Pedal Cyclists -- Draft Standard

European Committee for Standardization - CEN

06/01/94

Another draft of the CEN (Centre European de Normalization) bicycle helmet standard. It tests 16 samples, using a 1.5 meter guided free-fall onto flat and "kerbstone" anvils. Has a rolloff test for positional stability, and an artificial aging test. Some sections appear to be unfinished, so further revisions are likely. Dean Fisher of Bell says in BHSIDOC #491 that this draft has been shelved until June of 1995.


BHSIDOC #494

11 Page(s)



European Cyclists' Federation,

Cycle Helmets

European Cyclists' Federation position paper, revised Oct. 23, 1991

10/23/91

Conclusions: Helmets can avert some deaths and injuries but the effect is often exaggerated and they are a secondary safety measure. "Cycling helmets make cycling less convenient and should, therefore, by no means be compulsory." Money to promote helmets should be spent on primary safety measures.


BHSIDOC #426

2 Page(s)



Ewing and Thomas,

Human Head and Neck Response to Impact Acceleration

U.S.Army-Navy Joint Report NAMRL Monograph 21/USAARL 73-1,Aug,1972

08/01/72

A highly technical study of live subjects on an acceleration sled designed to yield data for modeling the human head and neck in impact. The data show how the human head and neck will move for a given impact input to the body.


BHSIDOC #249

225 Page(s)



Farrer, Susan

Helmet Survey Results: At Last

Washington Area Bicyclist Assn. Ride On, April,1992

04/01/92

WABA's 1990 survey showed regional wearing rates between 41 per cent and 58 per cent depending on type of rider and area. Weekday riders wore helmets more, while casual recreational riders used them less. (Previous observations in the area have shown that nearly all of Washington's bicycle messengers do use helmets, while very few inner city minority residents do.) We add an item from Pro Bike News of January, 1992, reporting a Harborview study of the Seattle area shows similar results: 40 per cent for child riders and 56 per cent for adults. In Seattle's case, adult helmet use did not vary with socioeconomic status. (Contact Lisa Rogers at Harborview, (206) 223-3399.) Data on helmet use nationally is still unavailable.


BHSIDOC #438

2 Page(s)



Ferguson, Gus

With Gusto: Paracadute--A Helmet Breakthrough

Pedal Power Magazine, S. and N. Transvaal Pedal Power Assns.

06/01/89

A thinly disguised anti-helmet article in cartoon and text form. Caricatures a rubber helmet deploying when the rider falls. As in the British CTC position, says helmets are cumbersome, hot, and heavy, restrict upper vision, cause neck dislocation, and "provoke unbelievable quantities of sweat." Gus notes that his helmet "only minimises the risk of cranial damage and is not insurance against it." The CTC's influence has penetrated to outposts of British influence.


BHSIDOC #229

1 Page(s)



Fife, Daniel et al.

Fatal Injuries to Bicyclists: The Experience of Dade County, Fla.

The Journal of Trauma, Vol 23, No. 8, 1983

01/01/83

Examines fatal bicycle accidents in Dade County over 23 years. Most significant finding was that all fatalities involved motor vehicles. Some statistics on head injuries, other injuries, hour of day, direction from which car hit bicycle, age distribution. None of the fatalities was wearing a helmet, and 86% suffered a head or neck injury.


BHSIDOC #79

6 Page(s)



Fise, Mary Ellen R.

Petition to CPSC to Adopt a Federal bicycle helmet standard

Consumer Federation of America, Washington, D.C.

05/15/89

A petition drawn up by the Consumer Federation of America and submitted on behalf of 34 organizations (including BHSI) asking the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to develop and promulgate a standard for bicycle helmets. The standard would permit CPSC to prohibit sales of non-qualifying helmets. CPSC rejected the petition in mid-1991 on the grounds that current standards were already doing the job.


BHSIDOC #174

29 Page(s)



Fisher, Dean

History, Helmets and Standards: 40 Years of Advancement in Head Protection

ASTM Standardization News, June, 1992.

06/01/92

A brief history of the evolution of helmet standards and helmets by the Dean of the standards community, who has contributed a great deal over the past 25 years. A fairly general article designed to give non-helmet ASTM members an overview. Has drawings of guidewire and monorail test rigs. The Snell standard (listed under Snell, BHSIDOC #355) has more detailed information on specifications for those seeking to understand how a standard works, but this article would be useful for background. Although the author is Bell's Senior VP, there is not one hint of horn-tooting for his company.


BHSIDOC #444

5 Page(s)



Fisher, Dean

F08.53 on Headgear: Growing in Size and Scope

ASTM Standardization News, February, 1994.

02/01/94

A description of the ASTM helmet committee from the Dean of helmet standards. Fisher describes how the F08.53 Committee has grown until 65 or 70 members attend the semi-annual meetings, working on 11 or 12 standards during each two-day session. He notes that bicycle helmet sales have exploded from 5,000 per year in 1975 to an estimated 8 million in 1993. He also reports that the European CEN standard draft had just been shelved until at least June of 1995.


BHSIDOC #491

3 Page(s)



Fisher, Dean L.

The Bicyclist and Helmet Use - 1982

Paper, or may have been a speech.

01/01/82

Some thoughts by Bell's senior helmet man on the state of bicyclist use of helmets in 1982. Has a nice bar-chart comparing the energy levels of various standards.


BHSIDOC #58

8 Page(s)



Fisher, Dean L.

Positional Stability Test Equipment and Methodology

Bell Helmets, paper presented to the Australian stds. committee.

01/01/01

Describes the sled Bell uses to test for helmet retention. It accelerates along a 4 meter track to reach a speed of up to 30 MPH, hitting a stop at the end and jerking the headform mounted on it. Some of Bell's headforms are hinged to flop forward for some degrees as a human would. Bell mounts helmets on the headform to test retention performance. The talk also includes descriptions and illustrations of some other techniques for achieving similar results.


BHSIDOC #273

9 Page(s)



Fisher, Dean L.

Five Level Universal Test System

Bell Helmets, paper presented by Dean Fisher to ASTM

04/30/86

Proposes a helmet standard with five levels or grades of helmet, based on impact performance. Includes five drop heights from 1 meter to 4 meters. Illustrates 8 possible anvil shapes. The system could be used for many different types of helmets. The labeling proposed makes it evident that it would not be easy to explain to consumers.


BHSIDOC #296

7 Page(s)



Fisher, Dean and Terry Stern,

Helmets Work! An 1100 Bicycle Helmet Accident Report

Bell Sports, Inc., Paper for AAAM Ircobi Conference, September, 1994

09/01/94

Bell collected 1,100 crashed helmets returned for replacement by the rider. The helmets ranged from "vintage mid '70's hard shell" models to current lighter models. Recounts the history of bike helmets according to Bell. Impact locations were: 41 per cent front, 26 per cent rear, 26 percent sides, 3 per cent top, 4 per cent "not discernible." Impacted surfaces were 70 per cent flat (asphalt, cement, dirt, wall), 17 percent compliant, 4 per cent on the edge of an object, 4 per cent cylindrical, 2 per cent hemispherical, 2 per cent small rocks, 1 per cent gravel. One per cent showed some evidence of puncture, but not through to the head. Riders were 29 per cent mountain biking, 25 per cent road, 17 per cent racing or training, 22 per cent touring, 6 per cent commuters, 1 per cent non-biking activity. Age one to 74 years, with the average 27, largest group 11 to 20 and 17 per cent under age 10. Reported speeds 0 to 55 MPH. Sixty-four percent reported an injury, including 356 abrasions, 364 contusions, 144 fractured bones (one skull fracture), 82 lacerations, 21 sprains, 106 strains, 31 separations and 9 punctured lungs attributed to broken ribs. In the helmeted area there were 219 minor head injures, 58 lost consciousness without residual effects, 23 were injured in the rear, 23 in front, 13 around the temples, 7 near the eye, and 4 had scalp lacerations. There were many more facial and other body injuries. Authors conclude that bike helmets "..are doing an excellent job of preventing more serious injury and saving lives." Summarizes with charts and graphs. The sample is obviously skewed, but the data are interesting whatever they represent. See BHSIDOC #488 for a similar well-done study by Smith et al., also based on helmets returned to a manufacturer. We do not have permission to reproduce AAAM documents.


BHSIDOC #554

22 Page(s)

Media: Not from BHSI, Contact AAAM.



Forester, John

Why Wear A Helmet?

American Bicyclist and Motorcyclist, March, 1985.

03/01/85

Outlines Six Reasons for wearing a helmet. Provides some basic physics to explain how energy builds up during a fall and what the helmet does to cushion the blow at the moment of impact. Notes that training riders helps to avoid crashes in the first place. Estimates that more deaths can be prevented through rider training than with any other program, but that helmet-wearing is the second most powerful safety program.


BHSIDOC #252

2 Page(s)



Fournier and Smith,

An Evaluation of the Stability of Bicycle Helmets According to CSA Standard D113.2

Biokinetics and Associates, Ottawa.

04/01/90

An evaluation of the retention ("rolloff") test in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) bicycle helmet standard to see if it accurately predicts which helmets will be likely to tip too far or flip off in a crash. Concludes that the test is a valid predictor. An important study for advocates of rolloff tests. Omits the appendix which identified the helmets by brand and model.


BHSIDOC #322

32 Page(s)



Fremont, Jim

TourLite Helmet Buckles Might Break

American Wheelmen, October, 1983

10/01/83

Best single article on the TourLite buckle problem. Has illustrations of the problem-prone first and second generation buckles, some of which may still be out in the field. We attach our own illustration by WABA graphics artist Nancy Olds, and another illustration provided by Bell Helmets.


BHSIDOC #99

4 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



French Commission de la Securite des, Consommateurs

Casques pour Cyclistes (Helmets for Cyclists)

French Commission de la Securite des Consommateurs

01/01/95

French language two page fact sheet on helmets from the French Consumer Safety Commission. Covers accident statistics, effectiveness of helmets, laws, standards, how to pick a helmet and other tips. Conventional advice. Issued before the European standard was approved, and indicates that while the European draft was being critiqued, mostly U.S. and Swedish standards were in use. We have not translated this one.


BHSIDOC #579

2 Page(s)



French Standards Association (AFNOR),

Draft French Standard for Protective Helmets for Bicyclists (BHSI translation into English of the French text)

AFNOR - Association Francaise de Normalisation

06/01/89

Draft French bicycle helmet standard, to be adopted after one year. Requires .9 meter drop onto a flat anvil with maximum of 300 g's and not more than 5 ms dwell time above 150 g. Dynamic strap strength test uses 10 kg weight dropped 100 mm. Unique ageing test exposes helmet for 200 hours to a filtered xenon arc light. This is an English translation by BHSI. We can provide the original French version if requested. We do not know its current status, but assume it will be superseded by the CEN standard.


BHSIDOC #235

17 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper in English or French.



Fritz, Blumenthal, Smutko,

BIG: A Buyer's Guide to Finding the Largest Helmets...

Bicycling Magazine, July, 1991.

07/01/91

A good article to help those with big heads, a more common problem as the average U.S. headsize increases. The authors measured the largest 1991 helmets from 20 manufacturers by inside length, width, depth and circumference. Largest circumference was the Giro Prolight XXL, largest width the Performance Enduro L and LT 1100 L, longest the Giro Prolight XXL and Aria Sonics XL. Larger custom helmets are now available from Headway Helmets, Sydney Australia (Fax 61-2-997-4027).


BHSIDOC #365

2 Page(s)



Frothingham, Steve

Helmet Testing is Complicated and Expensive

Bicycle Retailer & Industry News, April, 1993

04/01/93

Despite the title, this is a comparison of international bicycle helmet standards. Credits to Thom Parks at Specialized, BHSI, Snell and ASTM for info. Covers succinctly the most important differences between Snell, ASTM, AUS, ANSI and CSA standards. Is out of date on Australia's penetration provision, fails to note that the ASTM standard had not yet been published, and used the drop heights from the ANSI revision which never took place. Otherwise, it is a good effort to make a "complicated" subject comprehensible for BRIN's dealer audience. We attach a "Guest Editorial" from Ed Becker of Snell which appeared in the May, 1993 issue of BRIN, pointing out problems with the article on coverage provisions, g's and standards administration. Becker closes with "helmet testing is not so much complicated as it is detailed, and most manufacturers spend more money decorating and advertising their helmets than they do testing and certifying them. But helmet testing is essential. Lives are at stake."


BHSIDOC #466

1 Page(s)



Frothingham, Steve

Various articles on the helmet industry, 1993

Bicycle Retailer and Industry News

01/01/93

This author produced many insightful articles on the helmet industry for this dealers' publication in 1993. Some topics: Bell drops Snell certification on its BSI low-end line; Giro and Pro-Tec battle diverters of their product to discount warehouses; heated competition forces lower prices in 1994; LT helmets to continue in business after Chapter 11 reorganization; Trek doubles helmet capacity, Brancale set to re-enter U.S. market; Bell adds 160,000 square feet to its Rantoul facility making mostly bicycle helmets; new Helmet Worx design may eliminate roll off; 1993 bicycle sales rebound to 1991 level of 2.4 million; SEI emerges as contender to Snell certifying helmets to ASTM standard; Troxel uses honeycomb in helmets; legislative frenzy puts helmet laws on books. We hope to send you some of these in future newsletters when we have permission from BRIN. In the meantime, contact Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, 1444-C S. St. Francis Drive, Santa Fe, NM 87501, tel (505) 988-5099 for subscription information.


BHSIDOC #500

0 Page(s)

Media: From BRIN, not from BHSI.



Frothingham, Steve

U.S. Senator Gives Snell A Big Boost

Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, May 1, 1995

05/01/95

Reports that Senator Pete Domenici of New Mexico asked the Consumer Product Safety Commission to adopt the Snell Foundation's bicycle helmet standards as the U.S. government standard for helmets. Dominici also suggested that CPSC place enforcement of the standard in Snell's hands, stating "This proven enforcement mechanism could allow CPSC to reduce expenditures on enforcing standards." BRIN notes that "it also would require that all U.S. helmet manufacturers pay Snell to test and certify their helmets, a cost that would be passed on to consumers." They go on to trace the connection between Dominici and Snell Foundation President Hal Fenner, who hails from Hobbs, New Mexico. (BHSI talked to Dr. Fenner, and he told us that the initiative was Dominici's idea, based on cutting costs.) CPSC took up the subject while considering the revision of its standard and decided not to turn its legal enforcement powers over to the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #581

1 Page(s)



General Hospital of Edmonton (Grey Nuns),

Pamphlet: Helmet Safety Facts and Tips for You and Your Child

Grey Nuns Hospital, Edmonton Canada (403) 450-7312

01/01/91

A twice-folded pamphlet on legal-size stiff paper, with moving cyclist graphics and a great four-color before and after photo of a child who has crashed (black eyes, scalp wound) and recovered (helmet, smile). Panels cover why, how to choose, how to get child to wear, fit. Mentions CSA standard.


BHSIDOC #389

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Grey Nuns.



Gennarelli and Thibault,

Biomechanics of Acute Subdural Hematoma

The Journal of Trauma, 1982

01/01/82

Discusses injuries produced by rotational force, a very serious type of head injury where bridging veins are ruptured by a sharp movement of the head which is too quick for the brain's inertia to follow. Presents a new tolerance curve for this type of injury relating it to angular acceleration and pulse duration. Address for reprints: T. A. Gennarelli, MD, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104.


BHSIDOC #183

8 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Dr. Gennarelli.



Gillies, Neil

Helmets for Use by Bicycle Riders

Traffic Acc. Res. Unit, Dept Motor Transp., New South Wales,Aust.

03/01/80

Reports on testing of eight helmets to the Australian standard, including MSR, Bell and Cooper models, but not necessarily the same version of each that was available at that time in the U.S. market. Presents accident statistics showing percentage of deaths with head injuries in the range of 85%. Discusses helmets generally, and makes recommendations for improvements in the Australian standard.


BHSIDOC #16

24 Page(s)



Gisolfi, C. V. et al.

Effects of Wearing a Helmet on Thermal Balance While Cycling in the Heat

The Physician and Sportsmedicine, Vol 16, No. 1, January, 1988

01/01/88

Report on lab tests which showed that "wearing a helmet while cycling in the heat does not alter thermal balance or cardiovascular strain compared with not wearing a helmet."


BHSIDOC #33

6 Page(s)



Glaskin, Max

Helmets: The Facts at Last

Bicycle Magazine (U.K.), Late Summer, 1986

08/01/86

A 1986 British view of helmets. Based on testing at the U. of Southampton. Rates helmets in A/B/C/D categories based on max g levels of 150/200/300/greater than 300 in a drop that achieved 10 mph. Ratings: Group A-none, Group B-Vetta Touring, Muddy Fox SH101 and SH303, Kiwi K15. Group C-Bell Tourlite, Bell V-1 Pro, Brancale SP-4. Group D-Brancale Giro, Max, Muddy Fox SH707, Vetta Corsa, Cinelli Aero, Monarch Bike Ltd. Concludes that "the lighter the helmet the less protection it is likely to give." Sidebar considers arguments against helmets one by one and attempts to answer them. Test rig used unrestrained headform dropped on a "cradle". Some testing parameters are unclear, but the article was a giant step forward for U.K. helmet advocates.


BHSIDOC #105

3 Page(s)



Gleason, Patricia and O'Gorman, Robert,

Objective Testing Group Certifies Bicycle Helmets

Cycling Science, Summer, 1995

01/06/95

A description of the Safety Equipment Institute/ETL Testing Labs program to certify bicycle helmets to the ASTM standard, written by the President of SEI and an engineer from ETL.


BHSIDOC #576

3 Page(s)



Gordon, Paul

Helmet Guide: Part 2 -- Crucial Choice: Living with 53 Helmets

Motorcyclist Magazine, January, 1984

01/01/84

An article presenting capsule reviews of 53 motorcycle helmets.


BHSIDOC #50

14 Page(s)



Graham, Clay P.

Helmetless Motorcyclists--Easy Riders Facing Hard Facts: The Rise of the "Motorcycle Helmet Defense"

Ohio State Law Journal, Vol 41, 1980.

01/01/80

Briefs legal angles on how damages are apportioned in a case where the motorcyclist was not at fault in the crash but was also not wearing a helmet even though helmets were legally required. Depending on the wording of the helmet law, the motorcyclist's compensation can be reduced.


BHSIDOC #320

19 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper of barely legible original.



Graitcer, Philip

Headlines: the Newsletter of the World Health Organization's Helmet Initiative

WHO Helmet Initiative

/ /

Headlines is the lively and informative quarterly newsletter of the World Health Organization Helmet Initiative, edited by Phil Graitcer. We normally send the previous two issues. Phil also has a website up at http://www.emory.edu/WHI/home.html with the latest Headlines always available there.


BHSIDOC #588

20 Page(s)



Graitcer, Philip L.

Headlines: The Newsletter of the WHO Helmet Initiative

USG Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Vol. 1, No. 2, Spring, 1992

03/21/92

Newsletter for participants in the World Health Organization helmet initiative, which began in 1991 to promote bicycle helmet use world-wide. Reports on Swedish promotions, responses from BHSI and the European Cyclists' Federation, two recent articles (BHSIDOC #401) and a meeting scheduled for September, 1992 in Glasgow. For information, contact Dr. Philip L. Graitcer, Medical Epidemiologist, Division of Injury Control (F-41), Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Tel. (404) 488-4229.


BHSIDOC #420

4 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Dr. Graitcer.



Graitcer, Philip L.

WHO Helmet Initiative: Meeting Minutes, October, 1991.

USG Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, October, 1991.

01/29/91

Minutes of second meeting of the World Health Organization's Helmet Initiative group, designed to promote the use of bicycle and motorcycle helmets world-wide and to stimulate public health agencies to address injury control measures. Group is in survey phase. Reports from USA (Bill Kamela of Safe Kids), Canada, Sweden, Australia, Norway, India. Group decided to expand the initiative though media and legislative efforts, develop data, work up materials for a generic campaign for 1993.


BHSIDOC #421

4 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Dr. Graitcer at CDC.



Graitcer et al,

A Review of Educational and Legislative Strategies to Promote Bicycle Helmets

Injury Prevention 1995; 1:122-129

01/01/95

Reviews strategies for promoting helmets, including educational programs, school programs, physicians' programs, subsidies, community programs and enforcement strategies. Concludes that individual educational strategies are not effective, but the efforts of community-wide coalitions are. Discusses the pros and cons of laws as the most cost-effective method. Forty-one references.


BHSIDOC #559

8 Page(s)



Greater Dallas Bicyclists,

Defective Helmets? Injured Bicyclist Sues Helmet Manufacturer Reprinted from ABA Journal, Nov. 1, 1988.

Greater Dallas Bicyclists Spokesman, Dec, 1988.

12/01/88

Reports that a Seattle attorney told the 1988 annual meeting of the Association of Trial Lawyers to expect an increase in lawsuits against manufacturers of helmets which do not meet the 1984 ANSI standard, including helmets manufactured before 1984. He had just won a settlement for a client injured in a Skid Lid. Quotes Dave Thom of USC saying the problem was going away because few of the helmets were still in use. Most manufacturers of non-ANSI helmets were out of business by then, and Thom proved right.


BHSIDOC #332

1 Page(s)



Greenberg, Allen

Helmet Laws Heat Up at the Federal, State and Local Levels

Bicycle USA magazine of the League of American Wheelmen, May, 1993

05/01/93

A rundown on the current state of helmet laws. Notes that numerous clubs already require helmets, and that 97% of LAW members responded on a survey that they wear a helmet all or most of the time they ride.


BHSIDOC #473

1 Page(s)



Greer, William

The Value of Helmets to Cyclists

New York Times, April 30, 1986. Consumer Saturday section

04/30/86

A basic general article for the New York City consumer, quoting Dave Thom of USC and others. Noteworthy because it appeared in the Mew York Times.


BHSIDOC #208

1 Page(s)



Grudens, Richard

Safety Testing of Helmets

California Highway Patrolman

01/01/89

Author visited the Snell Foundation facility in St. James NY (they have moved since) and wrote an article on helmet testing. The focus is motorcycle helmets and Snell.


BHSIDOC #284

3 Page(s)



Gurdjian, Roberts and Thomas,

Tolerance Curves of Acceleration and Intracranial Pressure and Protective Index in Experimental Head Injury

The Journal of Trauma, Vol 6, No. 5, 1966

01/01/66

A basic reference in the field of head trauma, recapping prior experiments with dogs which produced a correlation between time and pressure in cases of severe concussions, then the same curve for a human head, based on cadaver experiments. The authors offered the curves to help designers of helmets. Only two references in our copy.


BHSIDOC #184

5 Page(s)



Haederle, Michael

Attorneys Discover a New Twist When They Sue Helmet Makers

Bicycle Retailer & Industry News, July, 1992

07/01/92

Victims of bicycle-car crashes are beginning to sue helmet manufacturers after high speed crashes, claiming their helmets should have protected them and should have exceeded Snell and ANSI standard specs. Plaintiffs lawyers' search for deep pockets is blamed, and defense costs for even spurious suits can range from $50,000 to $100,000 per case. In Bell's case, this was reportedly 1.8% of net sales in 1991.


BHSIDOC #481

2 Page(s)



Harborview Injury Prevention Center,

Developing a CHILDREN's Bicycle Helmet Safety Program: A Guide for Local Communities

Harborview and Am. Academy of Pediatrics Washington State Chapter

01/01/87

A guide for local helmet campaigns by the Harborview staff and the AARP's Washington State chapter. Includes: Rationale for children's bicycle helmet campaign, Planning the Program, Selecting Program Methods, Evaluating the Program and Resources Available from Seattle's Bicycle Helmet Safety Campaign. Also has a pamphlet, a sample Public Service Announcement, a Speaker's Outline and Tips on Getting Your Kids to Wear A Bike Helmet. A great resource for local helmet advocates. Available from Harborview Injury Prevention Center, Harborview Medical Center (ZA 53), 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, or from BHSI.


BHSIDOC #207

14 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Harborview



Harborview Injury Prevention Center,

Toptube Hanger - A Message To Parents

Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center, Seattle, WA, 1988

01/01/88

A two sided tag in four colors for hanging on the toptube of new child's bicycles to inform parents that a helmet is an essential accessory. One of many materials available through Harborview from their very active local campaigns. Contact Lisa Rogers, Public Information Director, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, 325 9th Avenue, ZX-10, Seattle, WA 98104, phone (206) 223-8388.


BHSIDOC #156

2 Page(s)



Harborview Injury Prevention Center,

Tag: This Bike is Missing One Part

Harborview Injury Prevention Center, Seattle.

01/01/89

A tag to be hung with a string on new bicycles. The front panel says "THIS BIKE IS MISSING ONE PART." When opened, there is a panel of text and the rear panel has a child's face with a cutout space above it in the shape of a helmet. The text urges the buyer to be sure to get a helmet to go with the new bike. An eye-catching tag and a good reminder, but bike shop owners found customers asking why they were expected to buy a bicycle with a missing part.


BHSIDOC #250

2 Page(s)



Harland, John

Helmets, A Proper Standard At Last

Pedal Power magazine, Bicycle Institute of Victoria, Australia

08/01/85

An article on agreement by Australia's Standards Association to revise the Australian AS 2063 helmet standard following import of the Star and Rampar models which passed the standard but did not stay on heads due to lack of adjustable nape straps.


BHSIDOC #17

2 Page(s)



Harrisburg (PA) Bicycle Club,

Buy a Helmet - And Wear It!

Harrisburg Bicycle Club Spokesman, May, 1988 and May, 1989

05/01/88

Description of HBC helmet promotion program, including a $10 discount on helmets jointly financed by the club and the shop.


BHSIDOC #282

2 Page(s)



Hatziandreu et al,

Cost Effectiveness of Three Programs to Increase Use of Bicycle Helmets Among Children

Public Health Reports, vol. 110, No. 3. May-June, 1995

05/01/95

Assesses the cost-effectiveness of legislative, community and school-based programs over a four year period. Increases in helmet use achieved were from a base of four to 47 percent through legislation, from five to 33 percent in the community-wide program and from two to eight percent in the school program. Estimated costs per head injury avoided were $36,643 for legislation, $37,732 for the community based program and $144,498 for the school program. Costs were heavily dependent on the cost of the helmet. (Indicating that the ratios would be much more favorable with lower 1995 helmet costs.) Legislation achieved the quickest increase in helmet wearing. The sample here is limited to one program of each type.


BHSIDOC #566

9 Page(s)



Head First Publications,

Luminator - Before the Fall. Comic book style.

Head First Productions, POB 1746, Plainville, MA 02762 (508)695-0353

01/01/95

A black and white comic for grades 4 to 7 with color cover, featuring dramatic close calls, screeching brakes, reckless kids saved by the Luminator and a talking ocelot who lectures on general bicycle safety. Has two pages on helmets. As of May, 1994, prices were about 80 to 50 cents each, depending on quantity. Head First Promotions has two others: Officer Mike Kelmet Wears a Bike Helmet (pre-school through grade 1) and Lets Talk About Helmets (grades 1-3). We do not Printed on paper this one: Headfirst is at (508) 695-0353.


BHSIDOC #553

0 Page(s)

Media: From Headfirst, not from BHSI.



Head Smart Coalition,

Pamphlet--Lou and His Friends Have Something Important to Tell You

Head Smart, coordinated by Bicycle Federation. 1989

01/01/89

A 12 panel accordion-fold pamphlet on 24 x 7 inch stock, with each panel 4 inches wide. Has photos and quotes from seven helmet-wearing kids aged 8 to 14. Back panels have fewer photos, more adult-level text and copies of the Snell and ANSI stickers. Along the bottom is a perforated tear-off tape measure for measuring the child's head. A fine pamphlet produced by the Head Smart Coalition, consisting of Bicycle Federation, American Academy of Pediatrics and National Head Injury Foundation. Available in quantity from the National Head Injury Foundation, (800) 444-NHIF.


BHSIDOC #150

4 Page(s)

Media: FROM AAP, NOT BHSI!



Henderson, George

Correlation Anomalies Between Helmet Drop-Test Systems

George Henderson, Consultant.

01/15/74

Analyses identical tests conducted on four different test rigs in 1974, finding some substantial differences between the rigs, which were both twin-wire and monorail. Henderson apparently favored the monorail after these tests, and presents an analysis of why the twin-wire system binds on impact and loses some impact energy in friction. He was basing his analysis on impacts on a flat MEP anvil, whereas the problem is more acute when a hemispherical anvil is used and the curvature of the helmet shell and anvil surface combine to produce more off-axis movement. Twin-wire rigs are still in use today because monorails have their own problems, particularly as they age. Implies that a standard should specify the type of rig to be used.


BHSIDOC #175

24 Page(s)



Henderson, George R.

Calibration Methodology for Protective Headgear Drop Test Equipment

Paper. GHI Systems, 6217 Picardie Rd, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274

05/10/75

Discussion of the use of Modular Elastomer Programmer (MEP) anvils to calibrate drop test rigs.


BHSIDOC #24

20 Page(s)



Henderson, Michael

The Effectiveness of Bicycle Helmets: A Review

Motor Accidents Authority of New South Wales, Australia. 1995 Report

01/01/95

This is the most valuable reference currently available for anyone starting research on bicycle helmets. Seasoned bio-medical researcher Dr. Michael Henderson has digested the available literature and laid out chapters on why cyclists need helmets, crash and injury characteristics, the basic biomechanics of head injury, and effectiveness of helmets, mandatory laws and more. He fits the most important findings of hundreds of diverse studies into a framework, adding judgement and perspective along the way. Facts abound, and at least half of the sentences contain statistics. Uses Australian experience as a starting point, but this is an international study. Here are the answers for the Internet Helmet Wars. This study can save you hours of plowing through our bibliography. Available from us for $5 to cover our Printed on paper and mailing costs or by request from Anne Deans, Rehabilitation Manger, Motor Accidents Authority of New South Wales, Level 12, 139 MacQuarie Street, Sydney NSW 2000 Australia. Tel 61 (02) 252-4677. Fax 61 (02) 252-4710.


BHSIDOC #586

64 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Motor Accidents Authority.



Hibler, Michelle

Bicycle Helmets

Canadian Consumer, Vol 17, #6, June, 1987

06/01/87

Good article rating 13 helmets tested by drops from 1.5 meters onto a concrete anvil and acceleration measured with a tri-axial accelerometer. No word on what headform was used or what lab did the testing. (The article has credits at the end including "Testing: Peter Williams") Testing was probably done at least a year earlier judging by the selection of helmets.


BHSIDOC #39

5 Page(s)



Hillman, Mayer

Cycle Helmets: The Case for and Against

Policy Studies Institute, London.

01/01/93

Explains the British contrarian view of bicycle helmets. Helmeted cyclists ride less cautiously and crash more. Helmet benefits are exaggerated by helmet promoters and manufacturers who do not warn cyclists that helmets offer only marginal protection. "At worst, wearing a helmet may expose cyclists to greater danger." Has several pages of reasons why helmet effectiveness studies are flawed. Car drivers cause the fatal crashes and making cyclists wear helmets shifts responsibility from the driver to the cyclist. Mandatory helmet laws should not be passed, since "the balance of evidence does not suggest that mandatory helmet wearing would reduce the level of head injuries." And helmet laws will result in reduced cycling. As for helmet promotion campaigns, "the weight of evidence is also against the encouragement of cyclists to wear helmets." The primary means of reducing head injuries is improving the safety of the cycling environment. Need we comment? You can buy this publication by calling PSI's agent in the UK at 0800-262260. Or we will lend you our copy.


BHSIDOC #518

34 Page(s)

Media: From PSI or you can borrow ours.



Hirsch, Ralph

Effects of the Use of Bicycle Helmets and the Implications for Government Policy: Velo City 1989.

Abstract of presentation at the Velo City Conference, Copenhagen.

08/01/90

Presentation at the Velo City conference covering How Much Protection, Drawbacks?, Helmet Use and Government Policy. Recommends research, standards and promotion programs. Six references.


BHSIDOC #263

2 Page(s)



Hodgson, Voigt R.

Improving Head Crash Protection

Paper

/ /

Hodgson's views on the use of humanoid headforms and other advances in helmet testing technology to improve helmet design. Concludes that EPS liners in Snell standard helmets are too thin, too stiff, or both. Found a resilient football helmet liner superior in energy absorbing capabilities at all drop heights short of one where the author feels no helmet could prevent death.


BHSIDOC #13

4 Page(s)



Hodgson, Voigt R.

National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment Football Helmet Certification Program

Medicine and Science in Sports Vol 7, No. 3, pp 225-232

01/01/75

Description of the NOCSAE program to test football helmets. Discusses metal headforms ("unrealistic") vs. NOCSAE humanoid headform, which was developed for this program beginning with tests in 1971.


BHSIDOC #14

8 Page(s)



Hodgson, Voigt R.

Impact, Skid and Retention Tests on a Representative Group of Bicycle Helmets to Determine Their Head-Neck Protective Charac.

Michigan Department of Public Health

01/02/90

Hodgson's first study of sliding resistance of hard shell and no-shell helmets. Tested each on a Hybrid III dummy impacting on slanted concrete. Concluded that no-shell (all foam) helmets do have higher sliding resistance at impact angles of 30 to 45 degrees and could increase neck strain in a crash. Tests also predicted facial injuries with hard shell helmets after momentary "grab" followed by neck straightening. No effort to relate lab results directly to road injuries. Concludes that either type of helmet is effective in reducing head injuries. Reviewed in BHSIDOCS # 339 and 343. Hodgson's follow up study (BHSIDOC #357) included thin shells.


BHSIDOC #310

29 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Hodgson, Voigt R.

Skid Tests on a Select Group of Bicycle Helmets to Determine Their Head-Neck Protective Characteristics

Michigan Department of Public Health.

03/01/91

Dr. Hodgson's second study of sliding resistance used rougher concrete for some tests. Tested hard, thin and soft shell helmets. Found that the surface of a helmet affects neck stress in a crash. Hard shells still performed best, but thin shells were a close second and skidded much better than the soft shells. Recommends face protectors. Our copies are reduced to save Printed on papering costs, but full size copies are available from Pat Smith, CHP - Health Surveillance, Michigan Department of Public Health, P. O. Box 30195, Lansing, MI 48909, tel. (517) 335-9703.


BHSIDOC #357

16 Page(s)

Media: From MDPH or BHSI Printed on paper.



Hodgson, Voigt R. et al.

Testing the Validity and Limitations of the Severity Index

Paper. Publication data unknown.

01/01/70

Discusses the Gadd Severity Index (SI), reporting on cadaver and monkey research to test its validity. Metal headforms are found to produce poor correlations with actual cadaver injury. Critique of SI in a Vienna paper by Slattenschek and Tauffkirchen is reported. Charles W. Gadd then discusses the findings in a three page response.


BHSIDOC #15

13 Page(s)



Howard County, Maryland,

Bill #28 "to Require the Use of Safety Equipment for Bicycle Riders..." (Mandatory helmet law for under-16 riders.)

Howard County, Maryland

07/30/90

Howard County, Maryland's mandatory bicycle helmet law as passed and amended in 1990 requires that under-16 riders wear helmets when riding on public streets or paths. The first U.S. law requiring helmets for the 5 to 16 year old group, and before amendment would have required them for adults as well. We include Washington Post articles and the report of the county's Bicycle Advisory Committee pointing out that the legislation does not track Maryland's seatbelt law and can make unhelmeted cyclists liable for their injuries.


BHSIDOC #312

22 Page(s)



Howells, Bob

Bicycle Rider Explores the Controversies of Helmet Testing: Can we Live With These Standards?

Bicycle Rider Magazine, June, 1986

06/01/86

A follow-up to their "Ahead of the Game" article (Minton, BHSIDOC # 95), rehashing the test results. States the article was inspired by criticism of Minton's article from Kevin Montgomery of Skidlid, attacking the use of metal headforms in ANSI/Snell testing. Concludes that the ANSI standard produces a protective helmet.


BHSIDOC #241

5 Page(s)



Howland, et al,

Barriers to Bicycle Helmet Use Among Children

American Journal of Diseases of Children, Vol. 143, #6

06/01/89

Seven public health professionals and doctors discuss findings of focus groups with 4th through 6th graders. Concludes that few used helmets, many were concerned about ridicule by peers (Boston area), and they tended to respect other children who wore helmets. Recommends focus groups as a technique for developing programs and that programs be peer-led. Most frequent response to "what is the worst thing you can imagine happening to you if you crash your bike?" was "cuts and scrapes" or "injury to arms and legs." Thirteen references.


BHSIDOC #262

5 Page(s)



Hurt, H. H. et al.

Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures Vol. I: Technical Report (Extract only of some helmet discussion)

U.S. Department of Transportation publication from NTIS

01/01/81

A small fragment from the original, the definitive work on this subject. Includes the main discussion of findings on helmets. Study pertains to motorcycles, but the findings are significant for bicyclists as well. Some researchers feel the conclusions on the effectiveness of older vs. newer and more protective helmets are not supported by the data. The full study is available from National Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Identifying numbers in addition to the title are: P881-206443 and DOT HS-805 862. Contract No. DOT HS-5-01160. Additional authors are J. V. Ouellet and D. R. Thom.


BHSIDOC #53

5 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper (4 page fragment)



Hurt and Thom,

Laboratory Tests and Accident Performance of Bicycle Safety Helmets

Proceedings, 29th American Assn for Automotive Medicine,Washington

10/07/85

Brief history of helmet standards and difficulties in developing the ANSI Z90.4 bicycle helmet standard. Reports on test results for 29 helmets and case results for six actual field crashes. Concludes that the ANSI standard distinguishes poor helmets from those which provide "acceptable impact attenuation in typical accidents." Same testing provided Minton the data for the article in Bicycle Rider Magazine available as BHSIDOC #95.


BHSIDOC #167

13 Page(s)



Insurance Institute for Highway Safety,

Motorcycles: Fatality Facts for 1990 and Helmet Use Laws

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, VA

01/01/91

Statistics on motorcycle deaths and helmet use. Lists states with helmet laws in effect, repealed and reinstated. Estimates that one quarter of the deaths on motorcycles could be prevented with mandatory helmet laws in states who do not have them.


BHSIDOC #398

6 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from IIHS.



Insurance Institute for Highway Safety,

Bicycles: Fatality Facts for 1994

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

01/01/94

Statistics on bicycle crashes through the previous year. We fax this along with other statistics to anyone who needs statistics for a speech or article.


BHSIDOC #450

2 Page(s)



Insurance Institute for Highway Safety,

Fatality Facts for 1995: Bicycles

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, September, 1995

01/09/95

The 1995 edition with 1994 stats on bicyclist deaths, deaths per million, and distribution by age, month, time of day and day of week. Notes that the proportion of riders 16 and over has increased from 32 percent in 1975 to 63 percent in 1994. We include this sheet in the stats on our website and Fax-on-Demand server.


BHSIDOC #574

2 Page(s)



International Bicycle Fund,

Pamphlet - Bicycle Helmets: For Your Head's Sake...Show Your Good Sense...Buy and Wear a Helmet Today!

International Bicycle Fund, undated.

/ /

Black and white six panel pamphlet on 8.5" x 11" paper. Sections: "Do You Need One? Yes," "What to Look For" "The Option:" "The Death of Karyn." A legend at the bottom of two panels directs the reader wanting to purchase the artwork for the pamphlet or for more information to contact International Bicycle Fund, 4247 135th Place Southeast, Belleview, Washington 98006, saying that it is a tax-exempt non-profit organization promoting safe bicycle transportation.


BHSIDOC #143

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, or from Intl Bicycle Fund



Irving, A. Marshall

Minutes of the ANSI Z90.4 and Z90.1 Committees, November 2, 1988

Snell Foundation as secretariat to the ANSI Z90 Committee

11/02/88

Minutes of the ANSI Z90 Committee session in November of 1988. Participants extended the validity of the Z90.4 (bicycle helmets) and Z90.1 (motorcycle helmets) standards for one year while they began work on the revision of the two ANSI standards. For the bicycle standard they noted during the meeting that work was needed on retention, ventilation, labeling, applicability to children, conditioning of samples, drop heights, headform specifications, and numerous language clarifications.


BHSIDOC #178

7 Page(s)



Jagger, Janine

Kids Need Bicycle Helmets

For Kids' Sake (Blue Ridge Hosp., U.of Va)Vol.6, No.4,Winter,1989

01/01/89

A general article on kids helmets. Cites five department stores (Best, K-Mart, Penney's, Rose's, Sears) who handle child helmets at decent prices. Has a coloring book helmet with blank sides which kids are supposed to decorate and send in for a contest.


BHSIDOC #205

2 Page(s)



Japanese Standards Association,

Japanese Industrial Standard: Protective Helmets for Bicycle Users

Japanese Standards Association

01/01/82

Japan's bicycle helmet standard provides for single-impact flat anvil drops from 1.6 meters (adult helmets) or 1.4 meters (child helmets) with headform acceleration to remain below 400 g and not dwell above 150 g for more than 4 ms. The strap test can use a sample already impacted in the impact test, and the strap must withstand a 50 kg static load for 2 minutes without elongating more than 25 mm. Has a penetration test with a 3 kg striker with a 60 degree conical point dropped 60 cm. Requires a hard shell, and it must be of a bright or vivid color (white, cream, yellow and light green are suggested as examples) and if the color is not easily visible at night there must be reflective tape or the like. Has a unique test for damage by hair oil, and a wet test after immersion in artificial perspiration.


BHSIDOC #538

17 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

Snell Sends Warning On Helmet Retention Systems

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, February, 1989

02/01/89

An article on Snell's announcement that the Fastex SR 3/4 buckle no longer met their standards--even the one produced in Europe began breaking regularly under Snell tests. Fastex developed a beefier buckle to meet the Snell standard.


BHSIDOC #153

2 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

Simpson Enters Cycling Field

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, September, 1989.

09/01/89

An article about the entry of Simpson into the bicycle helmet field. Helmtec, a Quebec company, will handle distribution. Helmtec purchased the assets of the bankrupt Griffin company two decades ago and markets the Griffin and Ranger as well as the Simpson.


BHSIDOC #278

5 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

Troxel's Tijuana Transfer

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, October, 1989.

10/01/89

Troxel is manufacturing helmets in Tijuana, adding them to its long-standing line of other bicycle components. The article has background on the Troxel company.


BHSIDOC #293

3 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

Hot For Helmets

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, March, 1990

01/03/90

Describes helmet promotion campaigns by American Academy of Pediatricians, and Harborview, concluding that "1990 may very well turn out to be the Year of Helmet Safety." Reviews some helmets on the market, including Avenir, Aria, Bell, Ecko, Giro, L.T., OGK, Protec, Simpson, Specialized and Troxel (all advertisers).


BHSIDOC #295

7 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

Magazine Reveals Phase II of Consumer Research

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, March, 1991.

03/01/91

Reports on Bicycling Magazine research on who owns bicycles, what they paid for them, how they pick a bike shop, satisfaction levels, media influences, why they ride, what would make them ride more often, and their favorite colors. When asked if they planned to purchase a helmet, 15% of the enthusiasts, 20% of the moving-ups, 16% of the casuals and 13% of the infrequents said yes. The article reports no other helmet data.


BHSIDOC #397

1 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

OGK: Name Change Reflects Market Realities

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, November, 1991

11/01/91

Reports that the former Osaka Grip Company is now officially OGK. OGK manufactures 50.000 helmets per month in four models, including a school children's helmet to meet the mandatory requirement for helmets for Japanese school children. Japanese adults are not required to wear helmets, and "there are many traffic fatalities..because women [who are the majority of bicycle commuters] don't wear them." The Japanese market is about 4 million helmets annually. OGK expected to sell 200,000 helmets in the "very tough" U.S. market in 1991.


BHSIDOC #400

1 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

Profits in Safety? Troxel Says Yes and other articles.

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, April, 1992.

04/01/92

Three articles in BDS's annual helmet issue, including an interview with Dr. Richard Timms of Troxel, a general article on helmets by Dana Friedman and an article on merchandising helmets and shoes by Mercedes Henrich. Nothing sinister or startling hereabout how safety is marketed.


BHSIDOC #430

8 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt

New Association: Helmet Makers Put Heads Together

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, October, 1994

10/01/94

Reports on a new trade association of helmet manufacturers called the Protective Headgear Manufacturers Association (PHMA, pronounced fee-ma). With at least 15 members and an annual budget they hope will run as high as $80,000 in the first year, PHMA is intended to represent the interests of the manufacturers and to mount its own safety and helmet promotions, including a school poster program and a helmet safety video. Thom Parks of Specialized is the leading booster for the organization, with other directors being Dean Fisher (Bell Sports Inc.), Dave Halstead (formerly of Helmet Worx, may have resigned), Serge Dextrase (formerly Leader Helmets, now CADEX), Jerry Norquist (Trek), Al McCaughen and Rick Dixon (Denrich Sporting Goods) and Dennis Piper (Troxel). The group has been meeting during trade shows and ASTM meetings. Thom Parks reportedly suggested that Snell would be asked to help fund their activities, which we take to be another small zinger in the expression of the manufacturers' dissatisfaction with the cost of Snell's program. This organization has good leadership and hopefully will be a positive presence in the marketplace, since at this stage in the product cycle they will not be able to do anything to raise their prices.


BHSIDOC #533

2 Page(s)



Jarvis, Walt and Piechota, Ron,

Bell to Sell Dealer-Direct

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, January, 1993

01/01/93

Bell's announcement that they will now sell directly to dealers rather than through a distributor shook the U.S. helmet market. Bell will use the distribution network it acquired when it bought Blackburn and Rhode Gear to form one service organization. Some distributors may continue to handle Bell. There should be little or no impact at the consumer level, but Bell may be positioning itself to lower prices without cutting profit margins if it becomes necessary as the helmet market becomes more competitive.


BHSIDOC #477

1 Page(s)



Jenkins, Christine

Bike Helmet Law for Ontario?

Ottawa-Carlton Cyclist, August, 1991

08/01/91

Ontario is debating a mandatory bicycle helmet law. Local cyclists organized a debate, and report that afterwards 80% opposed the law, preferring an expansion of bicycle skills training. Terry Smith, then with Biokinetics, is reported to have said that 70% of the cost of a helmet is for product liability insurance. The law passed in August, 1993, taking effect in October, 1995.


BHSIDOC #373

2 Page(s)



Jenkins, Christine

Helmets Don't Have to Meet New CSA Standard

Ottawa-Carlton Cyclist, April, 1991

04/01/91

Reports that the Canadian government will not require all helmets sold in Canada to meet the CSA bicycle helmet standard. Says Terry Smith of Biokinetics in Ottawa believes that the CSA standard is superior to both U.S. standards (Snell and ANSI) in curb simulation, side coverage and rolloff tests. Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada believes that wearing any kind of helmet is more important than the standard it meets, and the helmets on the Canadian market already meet CSA, Snell or ANSI. Reports that the Louis Garneau helmets used by the Canadian National Cycling Team are certified to the Snell standard, not CSA.


BHSIDOC #387

1 Page(s)



Johnson & Knapp,

Helmet Cold Conditioning: Correlation of Structural Temperatures in Actual and Simulated Cold Environments.

U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Lab., Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362

10/01/77

Army research on the temperature of helmet shells in cold weather. Concludes that ANSI standard testing does not provide a good approximation of helmet and shell liner temperatures actually experienced when helmets are worn in cold weather. All testing was conducted in a walk-in freezer without wind. Results summarized in the comment to BHSIDOC #11, which is a summary of the full report.


BHSIDOC #10

25 Page(s)



Johnson & Knapp,

Helmet Structure Temperatures Encountered Under Actual Cold Use Conditions (Summary of full study available as BHSIDOCS #10

U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Lab., Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362

01/01/87

Summary of a study by the Army on temperatures of helmet components when frozen at 1 to 11 degrees F. and then worn by a volunteer seated in the freezer for a half hour. Under these no-wind conditions the shell/liner interface reached temperatures of 6 to 32 degrees F., while interiors were 58 to 77 degrees F. Concludes that ANSI tests do not approximate real temperatures of helmet materials used in cold weather. Full study is available as BHSIDOC #10.


BHSIDOC #11

8 Page(s)



Jones, Denise

Helmet Promotions: Don't be a Knucklehead

Bicycle USA, mag. of the League of American Wheelmen, May, 1992

05/01/92

A nice sampling of current child helmet promotions. Project Head First uses coloring books and comics, while Ride Safe provides a complete PTA campaign package. Allegheny General Hospital has posters, a Helmet Buyer's Guide, courses and a speaker's bureau. Dean Medical Center uses a "Crash Helmet" character in PSA's and school presentations, integrating helmet promotion into wellness checkups. San Luis Obispo Bicycle Club procured discounted helmets and coupons, compiling the kids preferences for use by future programs. Virginia's DOT has a helmet bank to lend helmets for events. Leader Helmets and Bell are both cited as promoters. Ms. Jones invites you to contact LAW at (410) 539-3496 for further info on the programs.


BHSIDOC #448

4 Page(s)



Jones, Jennifer A.

A Youth Group Based Program to Promote Bicycle Helmet Use in San Diego County

Unpublished thesis, Graduate School of Pub Health,San Diego State U

05/18/90

Design for an intervention with Cub Scouts to increase bicycle helmet ownership and use. Program to include parental education, child behavior change and helmet discounts. Study outlines need, barriers, other programs, methods, controls, measures, statistical analysis, human subjects. Includes 43 references, timeline, sample data collection sheet.


BHSIDOC #342

41 Page(s)



Kiberg, Charlotte

Skoleborn Bruger Hovedet i Trafikken - Danish Town Gives All Third Graders Bike Helmets

Berlingske, Copenhagen, November, 1989

11/01/89

A short article describing how the town of Gentofte, a suburb of Copenhagen, gave each 3rd grade pupil a bicycle helmet. The hope was to make helmets high fashion by starting all the kids at one time so that none would feel ridiculous. Kids in other grades were offered helmets at a low price.


BHSIDOC #256

1 Page(s)



Kim et al, Karl

Attitudes of Honolulu Cyclists Toward Proposed Bicycle Policies

University of Hawaii at Manoa

01/01/95

A survey of cyclists who participated in the Honolulu Advertiser Century Ride in 1994 revealed that these 25, 50 or 100 mile riders, all of whom wore helmets for the ride, favored mandatory helmet laws for all riders by a 65 to 35 margin, and for children under 16 by a margin of 83 to 17. Females favored the laws much more strongly than males, and non-white favored them somewhat more than whites. Bicycle commuters were not much different from non-commuters, and age had almost no influence. College grads tended to favor laws more strongly, and having had more than one collision caused respondents to favor the all ages law more strongly than those who had not crashed. Crashes had no influence on attitudes toward a child helmet law. An interesting study not duplicated elsewhere to our knowledge. The second author is Charlotte Albert-Thenet.


BHSIDOC #520

9 Page(s)



Kimmel and Nagel,

Bicycle Safety Knowledge and Behavior in School Age Children

Journal of Family Practice, Vol 30, No. 6, 1990.

01/01/90

Students in grades 4 through 8 were twice as likely to have had a crash involving injury or bicycle damage if they did not know basic bicycle safety rules, including using helmets. Those who had received instruction knew the rules better than those who had not. Recommends that physicians caring for children promote bicycle safety instruction.


BHSIDOC #315

4 Page(s)



Kostner, Stocker,

Improvement of the Protective Effects of Motorcycle Helmets Based on a Mathematical Study

U. Aachen and Highway Res. Institute, paper presented at IRCOBI, 1988.

01/01/88

Explores the use of mathematical models to optimize helmet design parameters, including shell thickness and density and thickness of liners. Presents modeling formulas and charts, explaining the element of helmet performance which they model. Notes that the impact trace for the ideal helmet would not be a curve, but a straight line rising instantly to the maximum g level and staying there throughout. (A curve uses the first milliseconds of the impact inefficiently while rising to the maximum level, as long as the maximum level can be held below the injury threshold) Suggests that mathematical modeling is an efficient way to vary helmet parameters before manufacturing prototypes.


BHSIDOC #288

19 Page(s)



Kraus et al.,

Incidence, Severity, and Outcomes of Brain Injuries Involving Bicycles

American Journal of Public Health, January 1987, vol. 77, No. 1

01/01/87

A study of what types of people suffer brain injuries in bicycle accidents in San Diego. Found that over half of the adults had been intoxicated.


BHSIDOC #8

3 Page(s)



Krivda, Frank

Letter re: enforcement of CPSC Rule on bicycle helmets

U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, May 5, 1995

05/05/95

A response from the head of CPSC's Office of Compliance to our inquiry on how CPSC intends to enforce its bicycle helmet standard. The CPSC Rule is covered under a U.S. law with penalties for violation. Imports are covered. Exports are not, but exporters are required to notify the Commission at least 30 days in advance of any non-complying export. CPSC staff will investigate all reports alleging non-compliance. "Helmets suspected of not complying will be tested by the Commission laboratory. All firms will be notified of noncompliance with the standard and appropriate corrective action will be requested." We think this will work out well because manufacturers will test their competitors' helmets and let CPSC know about any sub-standard ones.


BHSIDOC #571

2 Page(s)



Kroll, J. G.

The Helmet Man

Cycle World Magazine (Motorcycle magazine)

06/01/72

A "Deeply Probing Examination Of Dr. Snively And The Snell Foundation." Each page is double, for a total of 11. An early attempt to educate motorcyclists to what the Snell standard meant. Long and detailed discussion of helmet standards, materials, design.


BHSIDOC #19

6 Page(s)



Kroon, Bunketorp, Romanus,

The Protective Effect of Bicycle Helmets: A Study of Paired Samples in a Computer-Based Accident Material in Gothenburg, Sweden

Gothenburg U, paper presented at IRCOBI 1986.

01/01/86

This study matched pairs of cyclists who had crashed by age, sex, type and cause of accident, kind of bicycle and road conditions. Each pair had one helmeted rider and one unhelmeted. Head injuries in the helmet area were less frequent and less severe for the helmet-wearers. Reports on Swedish research showing that up to 57% of injured adult cyclists have head injuries, and up to 80% of child cyclists. A Stockholm study yielded 60%. Most are minor injuries. Mandatory use of helmets for moped and motorcycle riders has reduced the number of their head injuries significantly. Only 2 to 4 percent of Gothenburg bicyclists use helmets. The type of helmet worn by the helmeted rider in each pair was not known. The only severe head injury in the sample was to an unhelmeted rider, but the authors conclude that "it remains to be proved how well a helmet protects against serious injury." Eleven references.


BHSIDOC #286

13 Page(s)



Kuczynski & Ziegler,

Proposal to Vic Roads for Encouraging High School Teenagers to Wear Bicycle Helmets

Kuczynski & Ziegler

01/09/89

A marketing agency's proposal for a promotion program based on the "Wrap Cap" helmet cover. Background notes that the State of Victoria has spent AUS $2 million on helmet promotion. The number of cyclists admitted to hospitals with head injuries declined 21%, with a payoff to the community of $3.50 for every dollar spent.


BHSIDOC #309

18 Page(s)



Kukula, Kathy

Buyers' Guide to Hardshell Helmets

Bicycling Magazine, May, 1986

05/01/86

Covers basics on how a helmet works, shell materials, liners, straps, vents, aerodynamics, comfort, sweat control, standards. Lists specs for 30 helmets, including manufacturers' addresses.


BHSIDOC #97

7 Page(s)



Kyle, Chester

The Aerodynamics of Handlebars & Helmets: A Review of Steve Hed's New Windtunnel Tests

Cycling Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, December, 1989.

01/12/89

Reports on wind tunnel testing with precise estimates of the time saved by slicker wheels, aero handlebars and aero helmets. Compares a bare-headed rider with the Giro Aero, Giro Lemond, System U (used by Laurent Fignon) and a "standard" helmet. Charts drag at 30 MPH for combinations of bars and helmets. Concludes that Fignon lost the 1989 Tour de France by riding without his helmet in the final time trial, where Lemond beat him in a modified Giro. Kyle understands that only racers travel at 30 MPH on the flat and that at normal touring speeds aero helmets do not produce any noticeable gain. Cycling Science, P.O. Box 1510, Mount Shasta, CA 96067, $19.97/year) is a technical and performance-oriented journal.


BHSIDOC #254

5 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Cycling Science



Kyle, Chester

Athletic Clothing

Scientific American, Vol. 254, #3, March, 1986

03/01/86

Discusses advances in sports clothing and how they have affected athletic performance. Sections on shoes and helmets, including a general discussion of bicycle and football helmets.


BHSIDOC #285

9 Page(s)



Kyle, Chester

Wind Tunnel Tests of Bicycle Wheels and Helmets

Cycling Science, March 1990.

03/01/90

A scientific report on wind tunnel testing of the aerodynamic characteristics of bicycle wheels and helmets. All comparisons of time saved by the aero effects are based on flat courses and a constant speed of 30 MPH. The best performer of actual production models with an EPS liner was the Bell Stratos, although it was eclipsed by a prototype Specialized helmet which had no vents.


BHSIDOC #298

5 Page(s)



Lancet staff,

When Are Cyclists Going to Wear Helmets?

The Lancet, (U.K.), (1988?)

01/23/88

Discusses why cyclists should wear helmets and why they do not in Britain (silly, hot, confining, heavy). Concludes that support for helmet use from the medical community is needed, and others should pitch in too.


BHSIDOC #152

1 Page(s)



Lane, J.C.

Helmets for Child Bicyclists: Some Biomedical Considerations

Australian Fed Dept of Transp.,Off.Road Safety,GPOBox 594,Canberra 260

10/01/86

A thorough review of the literature on child helmet need and design. Statistics showing bicycle fatalities per kilometer traveled are higher than rail, airline, bus, tram and passenger car, but lower than motorcycles. Age distribution peaks at 12. Reviews evidence on angular and translational impact tolerance, including that of children. Quotes a 1974 Fayon and Tarriere study showing three year olds have less tolerance, but six year olds have about the same tolerance as adults. Discusses issues: optimal liner crush, coverage, impact surface, fit, head shape, sizes, very young children. Suggests reducing acceptable peak g's in testing to 200g or perhaps 150g for under-six users. Says there is a need for a separate children's standard. If you are involved in a child helmet standard subcommittee and we have not already sent this study to you, please call!


BHSIDOC #437

39 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Office of Road Safety.



League of American Bicyclists,

Recommendations on Bicycle Conspicuity

League of American Bicyclists (formerly LAW)

11/09/94

A position paper presented at the CPSC Roundtable on conspicuity held in November of 1994. Notes the need for standards, consistent state laws, consumer information, cheaper bike lights, education of riders, police enforcement, drunk driving action, street design and maintenance. Recommends that bicycle lights not be made mandatory by CPSC. This is a thorough position paper and represents LAB at its best, but it does not mention helmets.


BHSIDOC #552

10 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from LAB.



League of American Wheelmen,

Position on Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Laws: Helmet Issue Gets Hot

Bicycle USA, mag. of the League of American Wheelmen, May, 1991

05/01/91

LAW advocates helmets but takes no position on mandatory helmet laws. This position discusses issues and provides information on how to shape legislation now being pushed by Safe Kids coalitions and others to make sure that the cyclist's interests are protected in such matters as contributory negligence clauses. Other topics include forgiving fines as an incentive to buy a helmet after being ticketed, considering the expense of purchasing a helmet for low income families whose bicycles may provide necessary cheap transportation, and specifying a minimum age for passengers. The paper includes model helmet bills. It should be helpful for anyone sponsoring or opposing helmet legislation. Available from LAW, Suite 120, 190 West Ostend Street, Baltimore, MD 21230, tel. (410) 539-3399. Fax # (301) 539-3496.


BHSIDOC #317

4 Page(s)

Media: From LAW or Printed on paper.



League of American Wheelmen,

LAW Bike Helmet Campaign Kit

League of American Wheelmen, 190 W Ostend #120,Baltimore,MD 21230

03/03/91

A kit compiled with Safe Kids' help for National Biking Month includes planning the program, conducting the event, strategies for increasing helmet use, helmet effectiveness fact sheet, a good fit means a safe head, bicycle injury fact sheet, sample letter requesting shop involvement, some short case studies, and a sample news release.


BHSIDOC #350

10 Page(s)

Media: From LAW or Printed on paper.



League of American Wheelmen,

Ten Tips For Cyclewise Kids

League of American Wheelmen, 1992

01/01/92

Tips for kids: Obey laws, ride right, wear helmet, give turn signals, be seen, avoid parked cars, stop at end of driveway, don't clown around, yield right of way, be predictable. Two sided card 3.75 x 8 inches. Grey, so doesn't Printed on paper well. Copies from League of American Wheelmen, 190 W. Ostend St. #120, Baltimore, MD 21230, tel. (410)539-3399.


BHSIDOC #429

1 Page(s)

Media: From LAW.



Lee, Angela

Helmet Your Head Programme

Royal Berkshire & Battle Hospitals NHS Trust

11/11/95

Presentation panels covering West Berkshire, UK child cyclist injury data, reasons for non-use of helmets, the program, objectives, monitoring, laws. Results: helmet ownership increased from 23 percent to 68 percent, bicycle-related head injuries fell over a two year period by 42 percent with no recorded fall in cycling activity. The program guru is Angela Lee, Pediatric Clinical Nurse Specialist, Childhood Injury Prevention Service, Royal Berkshire Hospital, London Road, Reading RG1 5AN, UK.


BHSIDOC #569

18 Page(s)



Legwold, Gary

No More Excuses

Bicycle Guide, August, 1988

08/01/88

Answers racers' anti-helmet arguments, including heat build-up, drag, weight, image.


BHSIDOC #277

3 Page(s)



Leister, Nassau, Wise,

The Introduction of Compulsory Bicycle Helmet Wearing in Victoria

VICROADS Road Safety Division, Victoria, Australia, Feb. 1991

02/01/91

Australia's State of Victoria required helmets after July 1, 1990. This reports documents the rationale and development of the regulation. It lists exemptions as: (1) racers, (2) "those who would find it extremely difficult to comply," (3) those whose religion requires some other headdress, and (4) those with a physical condition making it impractical (big heads). VICROADS demonstrated how hearing aids, sun protection for skin cancer and lack of a second arm to manage buckles can be overcome. There is background on the Australian bicycle helmet standard, helmet promotions and helmet wearing rates before and after the law. Wearing rates varied widely with geography and demographics, but large increases were recorded for all groups, reaching a range of 93.7% (metro primary schools) to 59.4% (metro recreational riders). At some secondary schools the rate of carrying rather than wearing helmets rose. Conclusions: helmet promotion is necessary for laws to work, more promotion will be necessary to increase compliance. Eighteen references and several newspaper articles are appended. A first-class study despite some seasonal data problems.


BHSIDOC #358

27 Page(s)



Levine, Susan

After the Fall

Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, February 28, 1993

02/28/93

A wife's poignant story of her husband's severe head injury and his long, slow recovery. Drives home how bad it can be even when the patient lives, with long hospital stays, a bill for $78,000 plus, lengthy therapy and extremely slow progress. Interspersed are general comments on our society's lack of concern with head injury and its prevention. The story as printed omits the information that the "helmet" Jeff Davis was wearing was a Skidlid, an illusionary concoction which did not meet the ANSI standard.


BHSIDOC #459

4 Page(s)



Levy, Norman J.

On the Path to Improved Safety for NY State Bicyclists

Report of NY Legislative Commission on Critical Transp. Choices

04/01/94

The Commission is chaired by Senator Norman J. Levy. This study is subtitled "A Report About Bicycling with Recommendations for Improving Bicycle Safety in New York State." It is an inch thick, leading off with statistics and trends on bicycle injury in the U.S. and NY, profiling cyclists and their crashes, then discussing helmets. The study briefly covers construction and standards. Then it turns to NY State laws, bicycle safety programs and helmet usage. It then covers mandatory helmet laws in other states, but this section was six months out of date before the study was published. There is a section on bicycle facilities, then recommendations for laws requiring that: 1)Only helmets with stickers saying they meet Snell, ANSI or other recognized standards may be sold; 2)Anyone renting a bike must have a helmet; 3)Bike shops must post a sign explaining the NY state mandatory helmet law; 4)New bikes must have a helmet pamphlet attached; 5)NY DMV statistics must specify if riders in crashes were wearing helmets; 6)The NY education curriculum must be reevaluated. Charts are appended showing how other states define bicycles and what they require for lights, reflectors, etc. This study would be especially useful for anyone doing a helmet campaign in New York State. Copies are available from: New York State Legislative Commission on Critical Transportation Choices, 146 State Street, Room 302, Albany, NY 12207, tel. (518) 455-3155. We do not intend to reprint it.


BHSIDOC #498

0 Page(s)

Media: From NY State, not from BHSI



Litt, Le Roch, Porte,

Helmets: For or Against

Le Cycle (France), April, 1981.

04/01/91

A three section article in French covering the politics of helmet requirements, with pro and con articles followed by a doctor's for and against opinion. As in the UK, opinions seem heavily influenced by resentment over actual or expected mandatory helmet requirements, and the other questions are trivial. Fifty five cyclists died in French races from 1982 to 1989, which Dr. Porte considers unacceptable. We will translate if anyone really wants this article in English.


BHSIDOC #392

6 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, in French.



Lloyd, Barbara

Helmet With a Pump is Literally Fitting for Bikers

New York Times, March 7, 1992.

03/07/92

Reports on a new Bell model with an inflatable bladder to customize the fit. Maybe Bell will improve on this idea, which we tested in the Johnson JH-1 AS hockey helmet in the mid-1970's. The Bell handles impact with an EPS liner, not the bladder, and uses Rebok's pump mechanism. Bell's Douglas Poe is quoted saying "During the course of a ride, if your hair mats down and you feel the helmet get looser, you can tighten it. Or, on a hot day, if you get sweaty, you can loosen the helmet to let more air inside." The U.S. Olympic Cycling Team will use them in Barcelona.


BHSIDOC #449

2 Page(s)



London & District Academy of Medicine,

Prescription tablet of bicycle helmet prescriptions.

London & District Academy of Medicine, Canada

01/01/95

A pad of yellow prescriptions for physicians to hand out already printed "Rx: One bicycle helmet, CSA or Snell certified, to be worn each time you ride your bicycle. Fill: as soon as possible!" There is a space to fill in name and age. On the back are bulleted points: Wearing a bicycle helmet reduces the risk of head injury by 85 per cent; Today's bicycle helmets are stylish, comfortable and lightweight; Bicycle accidents are the most common cause of head injury in children; Accidents can happen anywhere-protect yourself with a helmet. A final Q and A adds: How do helmets work? By absorbing most of the impact if you fall or crash. This prevents or reduces damage to the brain and skull.


BHSIDOC #537

1 Page(s)

Media: From BHSI or LDAM.



Long, Dowdell & Griffiths,

Development of a Localised Loading Test for Pedal Cycle Helmets

Roads and Traffic Authority of New South Wales, Australia

01/01/89

Minimizing local pressure on the skull in impacts will reduce skull deflection and risk of brain damage. A child's skull may be particularly vulnerable. Recommends a test for localized loading of the skull to measure a helmet's ability to distribute impact forces. The helmet is mounted on a stationary headform and a 50mm diameter steel bar with a 25mm radius end is dropped on it from 1 meter. The localized loading on the headform must not exceed 25 kgF over a one square centimeter area (measured by sensors or pressure sensitive paper). The anvil must not contact the headform, and anvil acceleration must remain below 200 g. An interesting approach to a problem often discussed by standards-makers, but which no bicycle helmet standard addressed in 1989. A point loading test was added to the Australian standard in 1990. As in the case of positional stability tests, the U.S. has fallen behind in this area.


BHSIDOC #274

39 Page(s)



Low and Stalnaker,

A Lumped Parameter Approach to Simulate the Rotational Head Motion

Ohio State U., paper presented at IRCOBI, 1987.

01/01/87

Reports on the use of lumped parameter modeling with the usual masses, springs and dampers to simulate various loading conditions seen in car crash environments. The dynamic responses of the model were used to compute shearing strain on the brain and provide a way to establish injury criteria for rotational head injury in car crash simulation. Stalnaker is currently working on similar models with bicycle helmets.


BHSIDOC #269

13 Page(s)



MacFadden, Gary

Letter from the Director (of BikeCentennial) (re Skid Lids)

BikeReport, magazine of Bikecentennial, August/September 1984

08/01/84

Article in a monthly column addressed the Skid Lid controversy. Had been quoted out of context by Business Week, making it appear he favored the Skid Lid. Says he wears a Bell Biker himself. Recommends helmets for all.


BHSIDOC #45

1 Page(s)



Mathew, Don

The Road to Helmets: Paved with Good Intentions

Friends of the Earth Bicycles Bulletin (U.K.), July-December 1988.

01/07/88

A uniquely British view noting that U.S. cycling organizations are pro-helmet, possibly due to a tendency to blame the rider for crashes. Asks "how can American cyclists argue for helmets when in their own country they are rarely worn by either horse-riders or motorcyclists?" Says other measures could be more effective in reducing cyclists' injuries. Refers the reader to the CTC position paper (BHSIDOC# 169). Dismisses evidence of helmet effectiveness as "patchy and muddled." Asks if car drivers will be careless about cyclists who are protected with helmets, or if the cyclists will be less careful. Asks if all Brits should have to wear helmets, since it would have minimal effect on the death rate (which is twice the reported rate for U.S. cyclists at 300 per year for 13.5 million riders). Concludes that "a combination of good intentions and good old-fashioned commercial greed is going to tie us all up and distract our efforts for the next five years." A few grudging words acknowledge that "helmets do cut death and serious injury."


BHSIDOC #236

5 Page(s)



Mathieson, John G.

Bicycle Safety in Australia: A Comprehensive Review

Bicycle Federation of Australia, Canberra, 1984

10/29/84

Truly a comprehensive review as of 1984. Covers the extent of the problem in a section titled Statistics, then analyses solutions and sets forth requirements for bicycle facilities in a section titled Engineering. Cites a 1964 Australian study by Tonge et al (we do not have it) which showed that 80% of Brisbane's bicycle fatalities "showed brain damage with 71% have associated skull fractures." Cites the Cross study in the U.S. (BHSIDOC # 125) and Australian studies with similar data.


BHSIDOC #75

43 Page(s)



Mathieson, John G.

Bicycle Safety Helmets: Improving AS2063.2 and Promotional Campaigns (Australia)

Nat'l Bicycle Workshop presentation by Bicycle Fed. of Australia

04/10/89

A workshop conducted by the Bicycle Federation of Australia's longtime helmet promoter and activist. Reviews the current state of helmet use in Australia. Notes that the Australian bicycle helmet standard will soon become mandatory for all helmets sold there, and discusses the flaws with the current standard. Finishes with recommendations for improving both the standard and helmet promotion efforts in Australia. Their conditions are clearly different from other countries, but the workshop writeup should be of general interest for a different slant on helmet promotion.


BHSIDOC #189

3 Page(s)



Maunder, John W.

Head Lice Not Transmitted by Helmets--Letter

Medical Entomology Centre at the U. of Cambridge, UK

03/18/89

A letter from Mr. Maunder to Aiden Macfarlane explaining why head lice are very unlikely to be transmitted from one child to another by swapping bicycle helmets around. Maunder concludes that "the chances of catching head lice are minimal when cycle helmets are exchanged but can be reduced to virtually zero if they are simply stored for one week before being handed out again."


BHSIDOC #211

2 Page(s)



Maung, Natalie Aye

An Investigation and Analysis of the Levels of Under-Reporting of Pedal Cycle Accidents: Dissertation

U. of Southampton (U.K.), Faculty of Social Sciences, 1988

01/01/88

A dissertation written with Dr. Chris Morfey's advice which first examines the under-reporting problem from the variables influencing the reporting of bicycle crashes to police and then investigates ways to accurately estimate the total number of crashes occurring. From data produced by two hospitals and a bicycle magazine questionnaire the author concludes that the main influences on reporting are the level of injury sustained and whether or not a motor vehicle was involved. She finds that there are means of arriving at accurate estimates of actual crashes, and that official U.K. statistics grossly underestimate the occurrence of crashes which do not involve a motor vehicle.


BHSIDOC #230

92 Page(s)



McElhaney, Roberts, Stalnaker,

Biomechanical Aspects of Crash Helmet Design

Paper from Dr. Stalnaker.

/ /

Describes the use of the Maximum Strain Criteria in a mathematical system including helmet and head injury models to design an optimum helmet in terms of stiffness of shell and damping of the liner. Begins with a brief discussion of helmet design principles. Concludes that more work is needed on the models and on the definition of the impacts to which helmet wearers are exposed. Eighteen references.


BHSIDOC #213

8 Page(s)



Meier, Barry

Judging Which Bike Helmets are Safest

New York Times, May 26, 1990

05/26/90

Explains the ANSI and Snell standards based on interviews with Snell, CPSC and Consumer Reports. Notes that neither standard includes a rolloff test. Says John Preston of CPSC said the commission would find it difficult to justify creating its own standard." Has shopping tips on fit and a photo of Snell's Stephen Johnson with part of their test rig.


BHSIDOC #323

1 Page(s)



Metz, Sally

Pamphlet - Protect Your Head: Where Would You Be Without It?

Injury Prevention Resource and Research Center,Dartmouth Med School

01/01/87

Six panel pamphlet in red and black ink on heavy off-white stock. Nice black and white photos, cartoons, drawings, ANSI and Snell sticker reproductions for a lively effect without too much text. Basic facts on injuries and What To Look For, plus children's helmets. From Injury Prevention Resource and Research Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Hanover, New Hampshire 03756, telephone (603) 646-7780.


BHSIDOC #147

2 Page(s)



Metzenbaum, Bryan, Danforth,

Senate bills S.76 and S.228 Authorizing Grants for Helmet Promotion

United States Senate, January 5, 1993

01/05/93

United States Senate bills to established a grant program under the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to provide grants for helmet promotion to individuals under age 16. The Consumer Product Safety Commission would be required to establish a national bicycle helmet performance standard. Authorizes $9 million for the NHTSA program over three years, but nothing for CPSC's standards work. At present the bills are buried in committee. We bundle the bills with a copy of the CPSC regulations on consumer product standards which would be affected.


BHSIDOC #467

32 Page(s)



Mills, N. J.

Protective Capability of Bicycle Helmets

British Journal of Sp. Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1990.

01/01/90

Tested hard shell helmets with a rig whose flat or kerbstone striker fell onto a fixed headform with helmet mounted. Explores how the helmet shell and liner work to absorb shock. The response of the helmet is dominated by the crushing of the liner foam, and the effect of the bending of the shell can be ignored. However, helmets can have greater stiffness at the sides due to the curvature of the shell. Performance limits depend on the thickness of the liner. Concludes that tested helmets can protect in a direct flat impact at speeds of up to 15 mph.


BHSIDOC #407

6 Page(s)



Mills, N. J.

Instrumented Impacts on Rigid Polymer Foams and on Shell/Liner Combinations

Conf. on Deformation,Yield and Fracture of Polymers,UK,April,1985

04/01/85

The author tested hard shell helmets and bare foam liners on a rig which drops an anvil on a rigidly mounted headform and helmet, concluding that liner density had little effect on peak transmitted force, but lower density liners bottomed out when the helmet was impacted by a hemispheric striker. Shells improved the response by increasing the liner's energy absorbing capacity, particularly in the early part of the force deflection curve.


BHSIDOC #408

7 Page(s)



Mills and Gilchrist,

Mathematical Modeling of Effectiveness of Helmets in Head Protection

University of Birmingham, paper presented at IRCOBI, 1988.

01/01/88

Describes mathematical modeling of industrial hard hats and motorcycle helmets to predict the response of the helmet in an impact. Concludes that careful design of the fitting foam in a motorcycle helmet may reduce oscillations on impact and may be "of major importance in improving helmet performance."


BHSIDOC #287

12 Page(s)



Minton, Joe

A Head of the Game

Bicycle Rider Magazine, Spring, 1985.

05/15/85

A fine article based on testing done by USC's Professor Hurt. First article on bicycle helmets which featured actual lab data in numerical form, which caused considerable confusion among readers and was used by salesmen in distorted ways. Tested to ANSI standard and a 5'3" drop height chosen by observing bicycle riders on trails. Anvil was a piece of pavement. This article deserved more circulation than Bicycle Rider Magazine could give it.


BHSIDOC #95

9 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or reprint.



Mohan, Bowman, Snyder, Foust,

A Biomechanical Analysis of Head Impact Injuries to Children

Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, vol. 101, November, 1979

11/01/79

Studied head-first free falls of 30 children, modeling six of them. Concludes that head-first falls of children onto rigid surfaces from heights as low as two meters can result in serious injuries. Estimates conservative head injury tolerance levels to be 200g to 250g peak. These are not startling conclusions, but this is an important article which has not been widely distributed. If you are involved in a child helmet standard subcommittee and we have not sent it to you yet, please call!


BHSIDOC #436

11 Page(s)



Montgomery County (MD) Council,

Mandatory Helmet Law

Montgomery County, June, 1991

06/04/91

Requires Snell or ANSI standard helmets for riders under age 18. The penalty for a first offense is a $25 fine, waived if proof of helmet purchase shown. (The law does not say purchase subsequent to ticketing, so in effect leaving a helmet at home is excused once.) Parents are held responsible. Failure to use a helmet cannot be legally considered negligence or reduce recovery for damages by a motor vehicle operator. We add a Washington Post article.


BHSIDOC #361

7 Page(s)



Morfey, Chris L.

Staying Alive Survey Analysis

Bicycle Magazine (U.K.) January 1986 and March 1986

01/01/86

Results of a survey of Bicycle Magazine (UK) readers on their accidents. With 175 responding, the major conclusion was that 74% blamed their accident on another vehicle, and if the other vehicle was going fast the injury was more likely to be severe. There was no mention of the word helmet anywhere, although head injuries are discussed at some length and the author has been doing helmet research at the University of Southampton for years. One suspects editing.


BHSIDOC #68

4 Page(s)



Morfey, Chris L.

Completion Reports: Accident Data Analysis and Helmet Design Criteria

University of Southampton

01/01/86

An outline of research completed at the U. of Southampton, UK. The two projects are described but results are not detailed. There is an interesting reference to a Literature Survey which reads "an indexed collection of 300-400 reports and published papers has been built up. The collection..now covers most of the important work during the past 50 years. It represents a valuable resource for future study in the field of head injury biomechanics and head protection."


BHSIDOC #69

6 Page(s)



Morfey, Chris L.

Bicycle Accidents in SE Hampshire - A Closer Look at Head Injuries and Their Cause.

University of Southampton (U.K.)

12/11/87

Injury analysis based on a small sample of cyclists who crashed and were seen at one hospital in England. Fifty percent of the crashes were solo without involvement of another vehicle or pedestrian. Children had a low incidence of serious injury when their crash did not involve another vehicle, while among adults non-motor vehicle crashes were just as likely to produce serious injury as motor vehicle crashes. The serious motor vehicle accidents were mostly caused when the motor vehicle, traveling at high speed, hit the cyclist from the rear or side. Seventy-nine percent of the cyclists had more than 5 years' riding experience.


BHSIDOC #191

8 Page(s)



Morfey, Chris L.

Head Impact Biomechanics and Lightweight Helmet Design: Register of Current Research and Potential Users

University of Southampton (U.K.)

01/01/89

A listing of safety and cycling organizations in the U.K. and other countries who are involved in helmet-related research or interested in such research. Includes sections on organizations identified as Cycling, Equestrian, Accident Research, and Helmet Manufacturers. Lists 167 organizations and individuals, with addresses and telephone numbers for most of them.


BHSIDOC #193

10 Page(s)



Morfey, Chris L.

Bicycle Helmets - How Effective Are They in Real Crashes?

University of Southampton (U.K.)

02/23/88

Summarizes results of four studies done in the U.K., U.S., Australia and Sweden on the effectiveness of bicycle helmets. Three of the four are other BHSIDOCS (#'s 67,68,167). Concludes that helmet protectiveness is underestimated by three of the studies, but good helmets can reduce injuries by a factor of between 2.5 and 10.


BHSIDOC #194

5 Page(s)



Morfey, Chris L.

Notes on Shear Strain in a Viscoelastic Material Caused by Angular Motion of a Rigid Container

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, U. of Southampton, U.K.

12/01/85

Mathematical formulae which may be useful for calculating shear stress on the brain from rotational acceleration.


BHSIDOC #202

4 Page(s)



Morfey, Chris L.

Head Accelerations Caused by Direct Water Impact: A Study of Tolerance Based on Falls Into Water

U. of Southampton (U.K.), Inst. of Sound and Vibration Research

10/01/86

Assesses head impact tolerance in falls into water from high bridges. Notes that in a water impact the load is distributed over a large surface of the head, and there is no tangential loading. Brain injury typically occurs when the head strikes the water directly, while feet-first entry is less likely to result in injury. Concludes that there is a 50 percent likelihood of brain injury when maximum acceleration is 205 g, and the HIC is not a valid criterion for assessing the likelihood of injury for the longer exposure durations of around 50 ms encountered in water impacts.


BHSIDOC #251

26 Page(s)



Morgan, Peberdy, Rogerson,

Bicycle Helmet Usage Rates in Victoria (Australia) 1990-1991

VIC ROADS (State of Victoria's roads authority), July, 1991

07/01/91

Victoria adopted a mandatory helmet law July 1, 1990. Helmet usage rose above 90% for primary school children and adult commuters, and up to 75% for secondary school students in country schools. Melbourne schools had lower rates, and the "carrying" rate rose there to 29.5%, with the females-only carrying rate more than half. There were some seasonal complications in comparing data. Other safety factors (lights, conspicuity) are considered as well. A very well-done report.


BHSIDOC #406

82 Page(s)



National Adolescent Student Health Survey,

Press Release: National Survey Reveals Teen Behavior,Knowledge...

National Adolescent Student Health Survey, August, 1988.

08/01/88

A survey showing that 87.1% of America's teens ride bicycles, but of those 87.1%, 91.9% never wear helmets, 4.1% rarely wear helmets, 2.4% sometimes wear helmets, 1.0% usually wear helmets, and only 0.6% always wear helmets.


BHSIDOC #299

7 Page(s)



National Bicycle Education Consortium,

Bicycle Helmets: Do You Use Your Head?

Nat'l Bicycle Education Consortium, Bicycle Fed., Wash.DC, 1986?

/ /

A nicely presented brochure with good photos and graphics, some war stories, tightly edited text on helmets and a list of articles available from WABA (BHSIDOCS #1), USCF (BHSIDOCS #139), and Bicycle Rider Magazine (BHSIDOCS #95). The 8 consortium members were represented by Bicycle Federation, 1818 R Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Pamphlet financed by Southland Corporation (7-11).


BHSIDOC #138

2 Page(s)



National Head Injury Foundation,

Average Total Lifetime Costs for an Individual with SEVERE Head Injury in Appropriate Settings

National Head Injury Foundation, Inc., 1989.

01/01/89

A single sheet adding up the costs of caring for head injured victims for life, including medical care, rehab costs, extended rehab costs, residential programs for remainder of life. Reaches a total lifetime average of $4,567,875. References: Paul M.Deutsch and Associates, Center for Rehabilitation Studies, College of Health Related Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville.


BHSIDOC #226

1 Page(s)



National Student Nurses Association,

Resolutions 1989: Bicycle Helmet Usage

NSNA resolutions passed at their 1989 House of Delegates, Cincinnati.

04/26/89

A resolution supporting use of helmets passed by the National Student Nurses Association at their 1989 NSNA House of Delegates, April, 1989. Inspired by Safe Kids and submitted by the delegation from the University of Pittsburgh. NSNA members resolved "to encourage helmet usage among themselves, their fellow nursing students, family, and friends, and especially with primary and secondary school students."


BHSIDOC #223

3 Page(s)



New Jersey Head Injury Foundation,

Safe Play Program Kit

New Jersey Head Injury Foundation, 289 High St, Metuchen, NJ 08840.

03/01/91

A comprehensive program for teaching kids safe play habits on wheels, on water or on playgrounds. Has voluminous teaching materials for each part of the program, including instructor training materials. The On Wheels portion includes helmets. Contact NJHIF for copies. Funded by a federal government grant from the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta.


BHSIDOC #415

0 Page(s)

Media: FROM NJHIF, (908) 548-2326, NOT BHSI



New York Department of Health,

Methods for Evaluation of Bicycle Helmet Projects: A Manual for Local Projects

New York State Department of Public Health, Fall, 1990.

10/01/90

A manual on how to evaluate the success of local helmet promotion programs. Covers classroom survey method and field observation method. Includes sample forms for teachers, PTA President, field observers. Covers statistical methods to test the significance of results and has a computer program in BASIC to do it. A laudable effort--you will not have to reinvent this wheel! Author is Rob Lillis, Injury Control Program, NY State Dept. of Health, Rm.621, Corning Tower ESP, Albany, NY 12237, tel (518) 472-1143.


BHSIDOC #366

30 Page(s)

Media: From author or Printed on paper.



New York Governor's Bicycle Advisory Council,

Governor's Statewide Bicycle Advisory Council Report--excerpts.

N.Y. Governor's Statewide Bicycle Advisory Council, July, 1986

07/01/86

Excerpts from a larger report of the sections related to helmet promotion. Recommends helmet promotion but not mandatory use laws "for the present." Does recommend a law requiring bicycle stores to exhibit helmet promotion material. The full report is available from: Eric Eisenstein, Bicycle Coordinator, NY Governor's Traffic Safety Commission, NY Department of Motor Vehicles, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12228.


BHSIDOC #244

8 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper. Full report from State of NY.



New York Governor's Traffic Safety Committee,

Pamphlet: What's Wrong With This Picture?

N.Y. State Governor's Traffic Safety Committee

01/01/89

A beautiful four panel pamphlet on heavy purple stock with two full color pictures. (Unfortunately our copy is black and white) The front picture has three riders with no helmets, while the inside one has helmets. Four paragraphs of message followed by four Q and A's and more text on How to Choose A "Good" Bicycle Helmet.


BHSIDOC #242

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper in black and white.



New York Office of Public Health,

Bicycle Safety

Epidemiology Notes, Vol.3,No.5,May,1968. NY State Dept of Pub.Health

05/01/88

A concise general rundown on the bicycle injury problem from an epidemiological point of view. Statistics. Ten references. Notes that 3% of all highway deaths and 4% of all highway injuries involve bicyclists. References for the 75%-80% head injury statistic. Twenty-four percent of NY's fatalities involved alcohol. Available from N.Y.State Department of Public Health, Corning Tower, Room 503, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12237.


BHSIDOC #98

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from address above.



New York State,

New York State Bicycle Helmet Survey

Epidemiology Notes, NY State Dept of Public Health, January 1991.

01/01/91

Reports on a classroom survey asking children if they own or wear helmets. Although the accuracy of such data is always suspect, the survey showed that in 1990 13.7% reported wearing a helmet at least sometimes, with 18.1% in New York City. NY has prepared a manual for evaluating bicycle helmet promotion programs (BHSIDOC# 366 under New York State).


BHSIDOC #395

2 Page(s)



Newman, James A.

On the Use of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) in Protective Headgear Evaluation.

Proceedings of the 19th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1975)

01/01/75

The Head Injury Criterion concept is reviewed and "shown to be an inconsistent and unreliable criterion for helmet performance evaluation." Discussion of how pulses with similar HIC scores can be very different and can have different implications for injury. Proposes alternatives.


BHSIDOC #59

14 Page(s)

Media: Not permitted to Printed on paper.



Newman, James A.

Head Injury Criteria in Automotive Crash Testing

Proceedings of the 24th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1980)

01/01/80

The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) is reviewed and found invalid. Attempts to develop a relationship between the HIC and AIS criteria are discussed. Alternatives to HIC and other approaches to head injury assessment are proposed.


BHSIDOC #60

24 Page(s)

Media:



Newman, James A.

A Generalized Acceleration Model for Brain Injury Threshold (GAMBIT)

Proceedings of 1986 Int'l Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts

09/02/86

Newman's synthesis of data from various studies to show the relationship between rotational and translational impact energy in producing injuries in a linear or rotational impact. He proposes a system defining the threshold of injury based on combinations of the two factors. Six references listed.


BHSIDOC #179

12 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Newman, James A. et al.

Motorcycle Helmets...Who Needs Them?

Canadian Dept of Transport, July, 1977

07/01/77

A well-done, extensive pamphlet to convince motorcyclists they need a helmet. Covers head injury mechanisms, helmet design, standards, accident statistics with and without mandatory helmet laws, the anti-helmet case, and some case studies. Concludes with a pathetic photo of a motorcycle lying in the street after an accident. Should convince nearly any motorcyclist to wear a helmet if they read it all.


BHSIDOC #92

28 Page(s)



Nolen, S.

Bicycle Helmet Usage in Sweden 1988-1992

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute (VTI), Meddelande 713

01/01/93

Surveyed use of bicycle helmets in Sweden each year from 1988 to 1992, breaking out children up to age 10, elementary school children, commuters and bike path users. In 1988 the percentages of each group wearing helmets were 20, 5, 2 and 3 percent, respectively. In 1989 that rose to 30 percent for small children and 14 percent for elementary schools, but remained unchanged for the other two groups. In 1990 it rose again to 35 and 20 percent for the first two groups but remained unchanged for the others. (A helmet promotion mentioned in the study may have had an effect, but there is no attempt to link it to the increase in helmet usage.) In 1991 usage by small children dropped to 33 percent, while others remained essentially unchanged. In 1992 usage by small children dropped to 32 percent, elementary students fell to 19 percent, commuters rose to 4 percent and all bike path users were at 5 percent. The report mentions "stagnation" in usage rates. We have the whole series of studies from 1990 (author was Eva Wiren for the first two years) through 1993. Only the abstract and two page summary from each year are in English. If you need the Swedish part, ask for it.


BHSIDOC #509

57 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper of 12 English summary pages or all.



North Carolina Department of Transportation,

The NC Bicycle Helmet Campaign Guide

NC DOT Bicycle Program, 1990

03/01/91

A first class campaign manual written mostly by the Bikecentennial staff for NCDOT covering facts on heads and helmets, selecting a target group for a campaign, setting goals, organizing a committee, designing the campaign, messages, presentation outlines, media, budgets, incentives, discounts, surveys, references, contacts and five case studies. Great photos, graphics, a really fine piece of work. Available as soon as it is reprinted from Bikecentennial, Box 8308, Missoula, MT 59807, tel. (406) 721-1776. Call first.


BHSIDOC #351

49 Page(s)

Media: FROM BIKECENTENNIAL WHEN REPRINTED, NOT BHSI!



North Carolina Government,

Bicycle Helmet Safety Materials

N.C. Dept. Environment, Health and Natural Resources

06/06/89

A program guide for helmet promotion. Has "Tips for Getting Your Kids to Wear Bike Helmets," "A Community Campaign.." "What Pre-Schools can do.." "Bike Safety for Babies & Toddlers, "Answering Questions" plus several pamphlets and forms for ordering materials from NCDOT, Bike Federation and LA Police. Available from Office for Prevention, Division of Maternal and Child Health, Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, P. O. Box 27687, Raleigh, NC 27611-7687.


BHSIDOC #275

22 Page(s)

Media: From NCDOT or Printed on paper.



Oklahoma State Department of Health,

Traumatic Brain Injuries: Oklahoma 1989

OK State Dept. of Health, March, 1991

03/01/91

Analyzes brain injury cases in Oklahoma for 1989, concluding that they were the leading cause of premature death and Years of Potential Life Lost, accounting for more than 40% of all injury deaths. Twenty-three percent of the patients died, and 17% were discharged with detected evidence of brain damage (neurologic deficits). Motor vehicle crashes were the main cause (34%), with bicycle crashes (4%) ranking exactly with motorcycle crashes (4%), and well below falls (26%), gunshots (10%), and assaults (9%). Bicyclists were mostly below age 15, and mostly male (77%). They were hit by a motor vehicle (41%), took a fall (26%), or hit an object (15%). Alcohol contributed in 9% of the cases. None of the victims was known to be wearing a helmet. The study and a sheet on bicyclists' head injuries are available from Pam Archer, M.P.H., Assistant Director for Injury Epidemiology Division, Oklahoma State Department of Health, 1000 NE Tenth Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73117-1299, tel. (405) 271-3430 or from BHSI.


BHSIDOC #461

20 Page(s)

Media: OK Dept of Health or BHSI.



Olson, Paul L. et al.

Means of Making Motorcycles More Conspicuous

The HSRI Research Review, U of Michigan, Vol 10, #2, Sept-Oct 1979

09/01/79

A good study of various alternatives for making motorcycles more conspicuous. Main finding was that bright clothing on the rider seemed to give the best results. Noticed that mopeds get much less respect from automobile drivers than motorcycles, a finding which might be extended to bicycles. Did not attempt to assess the effect of the intimidation factor. Similar research for bicycles and pedestrians was conducted under NHTSA auspices and is in BHSIDOC # 73 by Blomberg. Helmets are important to conspicuity.


BHSIDOC #72

24 Page(s)



Ontario Legislative Assembly,

Report on Bicycle Helmets

Ontario Legislative Assembly Standing Committee on Resources Develop.

01/01/93

Committee report prepared for Ontario's bike helmet law, which was passed to take effect in October, 1995. Discusses bike injuries and helmet effectiveness, who should be covered, what riding sites, enforcement, helmet standards, supply of helmets, financial impacts, education, recommendations. (The French language version is included in our French language materials under BHSIDOC #541.)


BHSIDOC #555

21 Page(s)



Oregon Bike Helmet Campaign,

Oregon Bike Helmet Campaign Materials Kit

Oregon Bike Helmet Campaign

01/01/94

A package of materials prepared by the Oregon Bike Helmet Campaign including pages on Oregon's bike helmet law, Why Do It?, two successful helmet promotion campaigns, Building Your Program, Planning Worksheet, Funding Worksheet, Bulk Buys, Community Resources and Bicycle Safety Resources (mostly in Oregon).


BHSIDOC #551

17 Page(s)



Otis et al,

Predicting and Reinforcing Children's Intentions to Wear Protective Helmets While Bicycling

Public Health Reports, Vol 107, No. 3, May-June, 1992

05/01/92

Based on a questionnaire to 797 students, attempts to identify factors influencing children's decisions to use helmets. Recommends message to kids should be that helmets are fun, are attractive, provide a new look and a sporting image, are approved by friends.


BHSIDOC #445

7 Page(s)



Ottawa-Carlton Cyclist,

List of CSA-Certified Helmets

Ottawa-Carlton Cyclist, August, 1991

08/01/91

As of 6/1/91, helmets certified to meet Canada's CSA standard were: All American (5010, 5024, 5026, 5030, 5040-42, 5060-68), Bell (Streaker, Ultra, Cool Cap, Viva 2, Jammer, Profile, Blazer), Denrich (82490, 824960, 620 S/M, 620 L/XL), Helmtec (Tourlite, 1001HL S, Sportsafe S, Nakamura S, Family S), I-Tech Sport Products (TECH-LITE No. 1). The list was provided to O-CC by Greg Makowiecki, Canadian Standards Assn, Rexdale, Ontario.


BHSIDOC #412

1 Page(s)



Otte, Appel, Suren,

Recommendations for Improvement of the Injury Situation for the Users of Two-Wheel Vehicles

Paper at 1986 Int'l Res. Council on Biokinetics of Impacts(IRCOBI)

09/02/86

Notes the high rate of personal injury in traffic crashes involving two-wheeled vehicles. Collected data by visiting the scene of crashes. Analyses where on the body injuries occur and where on the car the body strikes. Proposes modifications to cars and trucks to minimize injury. Notes effectiveness of helmets and recommends their use. Twenty-three references.


BHSIDOC #265

17 Page(s)



Otte, Jessl, Suren,

Impact Points and Resultant Injuries to the Head of Motor-Cyclists Involved In Accidents, With and Without Crash Helmets

Various German institutes, paper presented at IRCOBI, 1984

09/04/84

Notes that the rate of head injuries in traffic crashes is very high among pedestrians (87%), bicyclists (85%) and unhelmeted motorcyclists (70%), while only 45% of helmeted motorcyclists suffer head injuries. (Injuries defined as any injury, not necessarily a closed head injury to the brain. For example, "Loss of teeth could be observed with helmet-protected as well as helmeted heads.") But 10% of helmeted motorcyclists suffer fatal head injuries, raising the question of whether or not the crash helmets currently used by German motorcyclists offer optimal head protection. Tested four helmets and found that when tested to the ECE standard they exhibited damage akin to that found in helmets involved in actual street accidents. Concludes that more study is necessary to establish the link between the lab standard and actual street performance. Nine references.


BHSIDOC #267

19 Page(s)



Outdoor Empire Publishing Company,

Ten Little Bike Riders

NY Governor's Traffic Safety Committee

01/01/89

An attractive strip pamphlet with ten cartoon panels, all showing helmeted children encountering road hazards. Copyright notice forbids copying without written permission from the company. May be available from the Governor's Council. Otherwise write to Outdoor Empire Publishing Co, 511 Eastlake Avenue E., P. O. Box C-19000, Seattle, WA 98109.


BHSIDOC #283

0 Page(s)

Media: FROM OUTDOOR EMPIRE PUBLISHING, NOT BHSI!



Outdoor Empire Publishing Company,

Pamphlet - Get Into the Helmet Habit

Outdoor Empire Publishing Co., 1986

01/01/86

A six panel pamphlet in four colors printed on two sides of a standard page. Overall effect is very colorful. Somewhat dated graphics. Text covers Did You Know, Why Wear A Helmet, Why Should I Wear A Helmet, What is a Good Helmet Made of, How do I Get A Helmet, Bicycle Safety Tips and What Parents Can Do To Help. Some familiar language. No mention of no-shell helmets. A commercially-produced pamphlet available in early 1989 at 12 cents per copy from Outdoor Empire Publishing Company, Bicycle Safety Division, 511 Eastlake Avenue East, Seattle, Washington 98109, telephone (206) 624-3845. Same company has other books, videos, brochures and a program kit.


BHSIDOC #144

2 Page(s)

Media: FROM OUTDOOR EMPIRE PUBLISHING, NOT BHSI!



Outdoor Empire Publishing Company,

Team Helmet. Bike Safety Book (Coloring book)

Outdoor Empire Publishing Co, 1993

11/04/93

A 16 page coloring book for children K-3 covering various aspects of bike safety, starting with helmets. Has connect-the-dots, signs, signals and a certificate on the back making the bear a member of team helmet with a rules card to carry in your wallet or tape in your helmet. (One hopes that the tape adhesive is compatible with the helmet materials.) Not available from us--contact Outdoor Empire Publishing Co at (206) 624-3845 for pricing.


BHSIDOC #484

0 Page(s)

Media: From Outdoor Empire, not from BHSI.



Overstreet, John T.

Maryland bicycle accident reports. Statewide and by County.

Maryland Dept of Transportation

07/01/88

An analysis of all bicycle accidents in the State of Maryland and by county. Also covered night accidents in 1987. Thorough statistics including all accident sites, but no info on helmets. These long reports are available from John Overstreet, 7954 Quarterfield Road, Severn, MD 21144-2125, telephone (301) 969-4717.


BHSIDOC #46

22 Page(s)

Media: FROM J. OVERSTREET, NOT BHSI!



Overstreet, John T.

Report of the Southgate (MD) Elementary School Bicycle Safety Program, May-June 1989.

Maryland Department of Transportation, July, 1989

07/01/89

A report on a local helmet campaign for elementary school children, including an outline of the lessons, how to conduct a bike hike, a list of bicycle safety films used, source materials for rodeo layouts, expenses and course materials from various sources including pamphlets, connect the dots, puzzles, etc.


BHSIDOC #243

41 Page(s)



Owens, D. Alfred and Sivak, Michael,

The Role of Reduced Visibility in Nighttime Road Fatalities

U. of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Nov. 1993

11/01/93

Using quasi-experimental statistical techniques the authors examine a database of over 100,000 incidents and show that crashes become more likely as natural light fades. The level of natural illumination is a more important factor than driver alcohol level, season, time of day or day of week. Conclusion: visibility is an important factor in twilight and nighttime bicycle crashes.


BHSIDOC #563

43 Page(s)



Oxford (U.K.) City Engineer,

Report to the Highways and Traffic Cycles Sub-Committee

Oxford (U.K.) City Council

06/23/89

A report systematically examining and disposing of the various arguments advanced by the anti-helmet lobby in the U.K. Includes a chart of the attitudes of various cycling organizations there toward helmets.


BHSIDOC #221

14 Page(s)



Palo Alto Bicycle Association Staff,

Skid Lid's Opposition to Proposed Helmet Standards Explained

Palo Alto Bicycle Association Newsletter (1982?)

/ /

Letters from Kevin Montgomery of Skid-Lid Manufacturing and Hugh Hurt of USC on the validity of the ANSI Z90.4 standard which was in draft and being challenged by Skid Lid.


BHSIDOC #121

3 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Palo Alto Times-Tribune,

The Loss of a Little Girl, Crusade for Helmeted Bicyclists, others.

Times-Tribune of Palo Alto, CA. October-November, 1991.

10/01/91

Inspired by the death of a young cyclist, the Times-Tribune has launched an effort to promote helmets. Six of their articles are included. The cyclist was Joy Ira, pictured on the front of the BHSI pamphlet "Must I Buy My Child A Bicycle Helmet?". The lesson for helmet promoters is that precious media attention can follow from individual tragedies.


BHSIDOC #402

6 Page(s)



Parker, Alan

The Great Helmet Debate -- A Bogus Issue

Freewheeling Magazine, (Australia) 1985

/ /

The president of the Bicycle Institute of Victoria explains "why the case for compulsory helmets doesn't stand a chance." A few years later all Australian states passed compulsory helmet laws.


BHSIDOC #122

3 Page(s)



Parkin, et al,

Evaluation of a Promotional Strategy to Increase Bicycle Helmet Use by Children

Pediatrics, Vol. 91, No 4, April 1993

04/01/93

Evaluates a Canadian helmet promotion campaign in two high-income area schools and two low-income area schools, with 18 other schools as controls. In all 22 schools helmet use increased from 3.8 per cent to 16 percent over the observation period. In the high income schools where the campaign took place use increased to 36 per cent, a spectacular gain, while the high income control area increased only to 15 per cent. In the low income campaign schools use rose only to 7 per cent, virtually the same as the low income control schools. Concludes that more effective promotion tactics are needed for low income areas.


BHSIDOC #530

6 Page(s)



Pena, Nelson

Forcing the Issue: Are Mandatory Helmet Laws the Answer?

Bicycling magazine, May, 1992.

05/01/92

Bicycling magazine's Bike Advocate argues against mandatory helmet laws, supported by Andy Clarke of Bike Fed, and sounding like a convert to the British CTC position. (BHSIDOC #344) Sets up straw people and bats them down, probably in hopes of provoking reader response. Reports that infrequent riders responding to Bicycling's 1990 poll were 91 per cent unhelmeted, while overall 79 per cent of respondents wear helmets. Concludes that most riding in the U.S. is already done under a helmet.


BHSIDOC #443

3 Page(s)



Pennsylvania Bike Federation,

Pittsburgh Hospital Mounts Helmet Campaign

PA Bicycle Federation Newsletter, Fall, 1991.

09/21/91

Reports on a campaign begun by James Lynch of Allegheny General Hospital. Phase I was a media blitz featuring local sports heroes in helmets. Phase II followup included free helmets, discount coupons, and safety courses. Phase III will be evaluation. A sample poster and free Helmet Buyer's Guide are available from Media Relations, Allegheny General Hospital, 1 Allegheny Center, Suite 740, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, tel (412) 323-5165.


BHSIDOC #403

1 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper. Poster available from the hospital



Pennsylvania State Government,

Bicycle Helmet Law. Act 1991-Number 20, signed July 11, 1991.

Pennsylvania State Gov't.

07/11/91

Pennsylvania's first helmet law required helmets for kids five years of age or younger when riding as passengers on a bicycle. No contributory negligence implied if helmet is not worn, no fine on first offense, straps must be fastened. Second law passed in 1994 extended requirement to anyone under 12 years of age. We send both if you need them.


BHSIDOC #414

4 Page(s)



Petty, Ross

Regulation vs. the Market: The Case of Bicycle Safety

RISK, Spring and Winter issues, 1991.

03/21/91

Considers whether CPSC's intervention is more effective than market forces in advancing bicycle safety. Concludes that lawsuits are more effective than CPSC regulations in policing manufacturers.


BHSIDOC #428

40 Page(s)



Petty, Ross D.

The Consumer Product Safety Commission's Promulgation of a Bicycle Safety Standard

Journal of Products Liability, Vol. 10, pp 25-50, 1987.

01/01/87

Discusses the background and development of the 20 page CPSC bicycle standard. Looks at statistics to see if the rule has reduced accidents. Concludes that head injuries have declined as a percentage of all bicyclist injuries due to hardshell helmet use unrelated to government regulation. Conclusion: "There is little evidence to support arguments that the CPSC's promulgation of its Bicycle Safety Standard has had significant effects." The author suggests that CPSC resources could better be spent on safety education than on standards promulgation.


BHSIDOC #76

26 Page(s)



Petty, Ross D.



Risk - Issues in Health and Safety, Spring, 1991.

03/21/91

Contrasts results from the promulgation of the CPSC bicycle safety standard with the results of non-governmental helmet promotions. Demonstrates the unreliability of the data, which produced a positive correlation between helmet usage and fatality rates, requiring the author to spend some pages explaining.


BHSIDOC #367

21 Page(s)



Piechota, Ron

Making Headway

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, January, 1993.

01/01/93

A profile of the Australian firm Headway and its founder, Frank Matich. At that time Headway employed 170 people, and was relying on exports for growth, claiming a 25% share of the Australian market. Quotes Matich as saying that the U.S. is about 18 months to two years behind Australia in helmet matters. (BHSI might say five years.) Headway is emphasizing its good fit. After this article, Headway went into receivership and was sold in 1995 to Valuca Pty Ltd. It has moved to a new location, but continues to function as a division of Valuca.


BHSIDOC #471

5 Page(s)



Pitts, Marilyn

Comfort and Style

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, May, 1989

05/01/89

An article for dealers, with comments on market trends and tips on selling more helmets from a number of manufacturers, each of whom knew their comments would be read by all of their competitors. Schwinn is quoted as saying that some brands have quality control problems, and that "people are playing around with new technology to find something lighter and harder than the present EPS helmet." XL Marketing says they are selling more softshell than hardshell helmets. Troxel states that the trend will be back to hardshell helmets. Several note that helmet sales are up despite a slide in bicycle sales.


BHSIDOC #200

5 Page(s)



Pitts, Marilyn

Is Three A Crowd?

Bicycle Dealer Showcase, April, 1994

04/01/94

The title refers to dealers' necessary choice of helmets meeting Snell, ANSI or ASTM standards. Notable mostly for the extensive helmet chart with many models listed covering rider type, weight, construction material, construction process, standards approval, coloring or graphics process, sizes, shell type, shell sizes, warranty time limit, warranty cost to consumer, retail price, dealer price, distribution method and promotions available to dealers. Some info on SEI certification and quotes from Dean Fisher of Bell and John Lambert of Giro, among others.


BHSIDOC #529

8 Page(s)



Pravetz, Jim

The Impact of Australia's Mandatory Helmet Laws

Bicycle Forum #30

/ /

The author decries Australia's mandatory helmet laws as causing a drop in ridership of 36% for children in Melbourne, including 44% in the 12 to 17 year old group.(There is no mention that the 17 year olds were just given driving privileges.) Unsophisticated first-time helmet buyers are choosing the cheap helmets, which are bulky and hot and will discourage them from cycling. They buy at K-Mart, with no fitting help. Old couples can't twiddle around the neighborhood any more without a helmet, which messes up the ladies' hair. Fewer women are buying bicycles and more women's bikes are on the used market. Casual riding is more complicated by the helmet requirement. Low income families can't afford to equip everybody. Quotes a Danish study on health benefits of cycling and concludes "anything that discourages cycling results in a net loss of life and well-being for the community." Quotes Ron Shepard of Bicycle Victoria: "Unfortunately we are wise after the event..Australian cyclists have been 'done like a dinner' by the compulsory helmet legislation. All that we can do now is sound a warning to the rest of the world.." This article represents well one of the poles of Australian helmet law opinion.


BHSIDOC #474

2 Page(s)



Price, Margo

A Lesson in Politics

U.of NC Injury Prevention Research Center News, Winter, 1992

01/01/92

Describes how Chapel Hill, NC, passed an ordinance requiring helmets for bicyclists under 16. Issues: proper role of government, enforcement, police resources, education, freedom of choice, political opportunism. Local DA will not enforce law. NC now has a Statewide Helmet Campaign--info from NC Bicycle Program, Box 25201, Raleigh, NC 27611. Tel. (919)733-2804.


BHSIDOC #422

2 Page(s)



Pro Bike News Staff,

Personal Responsibility Rulings May Foreshadow More Helmet Use

Pro Bike News (Bicycle Federation), Vol 8, No. 11, November, 1988

11/01/88

An Arizona motorcyclist injured in an accident had his damage award reduced because he was not wearing a helmet. The same principle may logically be extended to bicyclists. Article came originally from the Sunland Hosteler, via Arizona Bicycling Update.


BHSIDOC #115

1 Page(s)



Pro Bike News Staff,

Helmet Promotions Flourish During February

Pro Bike News, vol 9, No. 3, March, 1989

03/01/89

Describes the helmet promotion campaigns being mounted for 1989 by Headsmart (a coalition of Bicycle Federation, American Academy of Pediatrics and National Head Injury Foundation), and Safe Kids. Contact person Linda Tracy, Bicycle Federation, 1818 R Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, phone (202) 332-6986.


BHSIDOC #117

1 Page(s)



Pro Bike News Staff,

Bicycle Bills Proliferate in State Legislatures

Pro Bike News, Bicycle Federation of America, Vol 9 No. 5

05/01/89

A round-up of State legislative initiatives on bicycle safety and helmet use, including bills introduced in Florida, Arizona, California, Indiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon and Washington. Status as of May, 1989.


BHSIDOC #240

2 Page(s)



Pro Bike News Staff,

Bike Fed to Study Helmet Promotions

Pro Bike News, Vol 10, #4, April 1990

04/01/90

Describes a study the Bicycle Federation will undertake under a NHTSA contract to survey 25 helmet promotion campaigns, four in detail. The one year study will produce a directory of helmet promotion campaigns, as well as recommendations for programs. Bicycle Federation's contact person is Linda Tracy, Project Manager, P.O.Box 8315, Missoula, MT 59807-8315, tel. (406) 543-8113 (voice or fax).


BHSIDOC #297

1 Page(s)



Pro Bike News Staff,

Despite Injuries, Few Kids Wear Helmets

Pro Bike News, Vol 10, No. 10, October, 1990

10/01/90

A brief report that an article in the August issue of American Journal of Diseases of Children by Don K. Nakayama, MD, found in a Pittsburgh study that 7.3% of children wore helmets before they had serious bicycle crashes, and 75% would not wear them after crashing. Dr. Nakayama recommended using the hospital stay to educate the children on bike safety while they are mending.


BHSIDOC #348

1 Page(s)



Pro Bike News Staff,

NHTSA Reports 941 '87 U.S. Fatalities

Pro Bike News, Vol 9, No. 5, May, 1989.

05/01/89

Reports that the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has released statistics for 1987 showing that 941 bicyclists were killed in that year on U.S. roads. Due to a change in its reporting system NHTSA did not report on total injuries.


BHSIDOC #248

1 Page(s)



Protective Headgear Research Facility,

Proposed Standard Specifications: Protec. Headgear for Bicycle Users

U. of Calif. Irvine

/ /

An early attempt (pre-1983) to draft a bicycle helmet standard. Marked "Working Copy Only, Not for Publication." A joint project of SHCA and the University of California-Irvine School of Engineering. Specified drop heights of 54.5 inches on hemispherical anvil, 72 inches on flat anvil. "Accelerations in excess of 150 g's shall be cause for failure of the protective headgear if the duration of acceleration at the 150 g level exceeds 5 ms." This is the DOT approach, and does not specify a maximum g level for spikes of acceleration. Penetration test with 6 pound pointed striker dropped 39.37 inches. Static strap strength test at 300 pounds pull.


BHSIDOC #56

10 Page(s)



RadMarkt,

Gravierende Unfallfolgen Sind oft Vermeidbar

RadMarkt magazine (Germany) Nr. 3/1991.

01/01/91

An article in German (untranslated) about helmets available there. Also included is a pamphlet from the Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club titled Radfahrerschutzhelme.


BHSIDOC #375

29 Page(s)



Reed, Don

Before the Fall (Video)

TCI Video Prod. Services for Cherry Capital Cycling Club, Michigan.

09/01/92

A video designed to convince parents to buy a helmet for their child. Heavy theme, heavily presented. Interviews Dr. Voigt Hodgson and others, working in statistics, war stories, kid shots, hazard shots, all in Midwestern accents. Buying advice is basic "look for Snell or ANSI," with nothing on fit. Good photography and production values. Contact Don Reed, 4765 Ludlow Road SW, So. Boardman, Michigan, 49680, tel. (616) 369-2294.


BHSIDOC #452

0 Page(s)

Media: From Don Reed, or borrow our copy.



Ride Safe,

Bicycle Helmet Program Guide

Ride Safe Inc., 1944 Hampton Dr., Wheaton, IL 60187

01/01/92

A helmet promotion manual produced by a for-profit company which works with PTA's to supply schools with a package of helmets and promotional materials. Covers How to Run a Successful Program in 9 steps, Ways to Promote Your Program, frequent questions. Has samples of PTA presentation, press release, flyer for parents, pamphlets, lesson plan, safety quiz, letters, a rap song, support organizations. Available only from Ride Safe, (800) 285-RIDE.


BHSIDOC #369

0 Page(s)

Media: FROM RIDE SAFE, NOT BHSI!



Ride Safe,

The Ride Safe Way to Fit a Bicycle Helmet - Video

Ride Safe, by Seidler Productions

09/01/92

A fine video detailing in nine minutes how to fit a bicycle helmet on your child. Explains a five step program and repeats it for emphasis, alerting parent that fit is important and will take some time for fiddling. Step 5 is fine-tuning the fit, repeating the previous four. Best thing we have seen on this subject. Available from Ride Safe for their program participants. Others call 1-800-2285-RIDE for info.


BHSIDOC #453

0 Page(s)

Media: FROM RIDE SAFE, NOT FROM BHSI!



Rieger, Ted

Industry Takes No Position on Helmet Laws

Bicycle Retailer & Industry News, March, 1993

03/01/93

Reports that most of the bicycle industry is not taking a position on mandatory helmet laws. An exception is the Bicycle Federation of America's Executive Director, Bill Wilkinson, who is quoted as opposing mandatory helmet laws because they discourage cycling. Safe Kids is quoted saying that Bell and LT support their lobbying for helmet laws with cash and helmet donations. Summarizes some state laws already passed.


BHSIDOC #470

1 Page(s)



Rivara and Young,

Proceedings: Forum on Head Protection in Recreational Sports

Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Seattle, WA.

02/18/94

Record of a conference on multi-purpose helmets held in Washington, DC on Feb. 18, 1994. Sponsored by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the conference was an attempt to build a consensus to develop a multi-purpose helmet standard to certify a helmet for multiple sports. Susan Baker discussed epidemiology, Mort Wasserman gave a pediatrician's perspective, Kevin Myette reported on a survey at REI, Mark Trammel discussed mass marketing, Todd Trewin spoke on sports figures as role models, and Carolyn Blashek displayed an amazing array of helmets she had bought for her children, covering the parent's perspective. Snell announced their N-94 multi-purpose helmet standard. Working group discussions are also reported. Conclusions: a multipurpose standard would be useful. It should cover bicycling, sledding, playground activities, skateboarding, all types of skating and perhaps equestrian sports.


BHSIDOC #505

40 Page(s)



Rivara, Thompson et al,

Seattle Children's Bicycle Helmet Campaign: Changes in Helmet Use and Head Injury Admissions

Pediatrics, Vol 93, No 4, April,1994

04/01/94

Describes the successes of the Seattle helmet campaign led by Harborview Injury Prevention Center annually since 1986 and now supplemented by many other community elements. Helmet use by school-aged children increased from 5.5% in 1987 to 40.2% in 1992. In one Health Maintenance Organization in the area, medically-treated bicycle-related head injuries decreased by 66.6% in the 5 to 9 year old group and by 67.6% in the 10 to 14 year old group. Head injuries fell from 30.2% of all injuries in 1987 to 16.4% in 1992. Concludes that educational helmet promotion campaigns can reduce bicycle-related head injuries. Notes that the campaign's annual impact has reached a two year plateau, suggesting consideration of mandatory helmet legislation. (An apparently added comment near the end states that observations in the fall of 1993 indicated that almost 60% of the children were helmeted.) Authors are Frederick Rivara, Diane Thompson, Robert Thompson, Lisa Rogers, Bruce Alexander, Debra Felix and Abraham Bergman.


BHSIDOC #504

3 Page(s)



RoSPA (U.K.),

Some Questions and Answers About Helmets

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA), Birmingham, UK

01/01/89

RoSPA's main helmet handout is in Q and A form, with delicate language indicating the ongoing controversy among UK cyclists over mandatory helmet use.


BHSIDOC #154

3 Page(s)



Rodale Press,

Product Report: Bicycle Helmets: Safety First, But Comfort, Too!

Executive Fitness Newsletter, March 17, 1984. Rodale Press

03/17/84

Article summarizing the contents of the March 1983 Bicycling Magazine article, with a chart rating 7 of the helmets.


BHSIDOC #40

1 Page(s)



Rodgers, Gregory

Bicycle Use and Hazard Patterns in the US, and Options for Injury Reduction

U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

11/16/93

A 200 page study of bicycle use patterns and hazard patterns in the U.S. The estimates are based on two separate surveys: a study of 463 injured cyclists and a national random-digit-dial sample of 1,254 cyclists willing to talk to a phone survey. The telephone survey relied on the cyclists to recall and report accurately their riding mileage and other information about their riding. Despite the impossibility of generating accurate data that way, the study uses the survey to draw many of its conclusions. Bicycle riding is described as "a risky activity, as reflected by the large numbers of injuries and deaths..." Some findings: 67 million cyclists, 15 billion cycling hours per year, one million injuries, (that's one per 15,000 hours of cycling), injuries cost society $8 billion ($120 per cyclist) annually, head injuries cost $3 billion, less than one-third of nighttime cyclists use lights, 71% of the injured are under 15, risk rises over age 64, 30% injured head or face, young children suffered a higher proportion of head injuries, less than three percent of injury victims are admitted to a hospital, nighttime riding was 3.4 times riskier than daytime, risk on neighborhood streets is seven to eight times that of bike paths, and 87% of head injuries involve collision with a motor vehicle. For helmets: 18% of adult riders and 15% of child riders wear them most of the time, over half began wearing helmets in the past two years, 21% of unhelmeted riders said helmets were unnecessary, helmet use increases with riding time, helmet use increases with age for frequent riders but decreases with age for occasional riders, and helmet use increases with education level. Small samples precluded conclusions on helmet effectiveness. The author compared characteristics of the group of injured cyclists with the recollections of the random sample cyclists to draw conclusions about risk factors. Some cyclists believe this is a misleading study because of the sampling techniques. There is a lot of analysis here. It weighs more than a pound and it will cost us $13 to send it to you, so please try to get a copy first from CPSC by contacting Gregory Rodgers, Ph.D., Directorate for Economic Analysis, Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC 20207.


BHSIDOC #490

200 Page(s)

Media: Preferably from CPSC, or...BHSI for $13.



Rodriguez, Angel

Everything Helps in Selling Helmets

Bicycle Business Journal, January, 1984

01/01/84

Ideas for shop owners on how to sell helmets. Covers emphasis, choice, good displays, advertising, good inventory, good sales people, sales techniques. Some simple ideas and some very subtle salesmanship.


BHSIDOC #93

1 Page(s)



Rogers, Bergman, Rivara,

Promoting Bicycle Helmets to Children: A Campaign That Worked

Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine, June, 1991

06/01/91

Describes the Harborview campaign in Seattle, crediting it with increasing child helmet use there from 5% to 33%. A coalition of health, bicycling, helmet manufacturing and community based organizations targeted 5 to 9 year old children. Main elements were discounts, media and contributions from a variety of organizations. Includes a one page "Patient Education Guide" for doctors to hand out.


BHSIDOC #372

9 Page(s)



Rojanavanich, Stalnaker,

Sensitivity Analysis for the Translational Head Injury Criteria: Overall Head Injuries

To be published.

01/01/89

Uses the Translational Energy Criteria (TEC) to analyze the effects of impacts of various amplitudes and durations to a human head. Compares impacts with pulse shapes which are triangular (sharp spike), trapezoidal (squared-off top), and half-sine (smooth curved top). Varies the time duration of the impulse to show that shorter impulses increase the likelihood of skull fracture. Shows the value of modeling in exploring a wide range of possible types of impact which could not be done with cadaver research.


BHSIDOC #216

13 Page(s)



Rojanavanich, Stalnaker,

Parametric Studies of the Translational Head Injury Model

IRCOBI--Int'l Research Council on the Biokinetics of Impacts, 1988

09/14/88

Describes the fine-tuning of the Translational Head Injury Model (THIM) to achieve better predictions of human head response in various impact situations. Finds the THIM "versatile and fairly convenient to use in the analysis and evaluation of head impact responses."


BHSIDOC #217

15 Page(s)



Rolsten & Haley,

Improved Design Criteria for Crash Helmets

Biomedical Engineering II, probably 1984

/ /

The authors, from US Army Aeromedical Lab and Wayne State University, tested helmets and concluded that reducing foam density and increasing its thickness will improve helmet performance. They recommend doubling liner thicknesses to 2.5 cm. They believe that "existing helmet standards permit the production of helmets which provide less protection than is possible, practical and feasible."


BHSIDOC #114

11 Page(s)



Rolsten, R. Fred and Haley, J. L. Jr.

Dynamics of Head Protection: Impact Comparison of the SPH-4 Flight Helmet Compared to a Commercial Motorcycle Helmet

US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362

07/01/85

A test of a commercial motorcycle helmet with a very thin liner (11mm, thinner than ANSI-standard bicycle helmets) which predictably bottomed out on the test rig and did not perform as well as the Army helmet. Shows the importance of liner thickness.


BHSIDOC #180

30 Page(s)



Roosa, Doug and Kimmage, Paul,

LeMond: How He Won and Never Say Die

Bicycle Guide Magazine, Dec, 1989 and Bicycling Magazine, Nov, 1989

11/01/89

Two articles show that many persist in the belief that Greg LeMond's epic win of the Tour de France was due to his aero bicycle and helmet in the final time trial. The aero helmet may do a lot for helmet promotion. The Bicycling Magazine article includes some wind tunnel data and an analysis by Fred Zahradnik of the effects of various aero components, including helmets.


BHSIDOC #294

17 Page(s)



Rosenberg, Michael

Helmet-Wearing Racer Suffers Severe Head Injury In Los Altos Spill Two Views on SkidLid Helmets

California Bicyclist, July 1983

07/01/83

Articles on the Skid Lid helmet and a case of a rider injured in a crash while wearing one.


BHSIDOC #37

1 Page(s)



Royal Berkshire & Battle Hospitals NHS Trust,

Have You Got It Right? - Pamphlet

Royal Berkshire & Battle Hospitals NHS Trust, 1995

01/01/95

A six-panel pamphlet with a "five S" approach: standard approved, senses clear, snug fit, squarely fitted, straps adjusted. The second thing to check is "senses clear" to be sure your helmet does not obstruct your vision and hearing.


BHSIDOC #364

2 Page(s)



Ruch-Ross and O'Connor,

Bicycle Helmet Counseling by Pediatricians: A Random National Survey

American Journal of Public Health, Vol 83, No. 5, May, 1993

05/01/93

A sample of pediatricians showed that 80% of those who counsel patients on health matters usually mention bicycle helmets. The percentage goes up among doctors with personal experience with head-injured patients, and among doctors whose own children wear helmets. Although other studies have questioned the impact of a doctor's counseling on helmet purchases, the majority of those surveyed in this group felt it was important enough to be included in subjects to be covered during regularly scheduled visits. The charts in our copy are unreadable.


BHSIDOC #495

3 Page(s)



Ruddy and Selbst,

Three-Wheeled Vehicle Injuries in Children

American Journal of Diseases of the Child, January, 1990.

01/01/90

Analyses emergency room data on 44 children who fell (36%) or otherwise crashed on tricycles and big wheels. One had a concussion, but most had minor injuries, less severe than those of bicyclists. Analyses NEISS data on tricycle injures. Concludes that most important measures are basic safety instruction and supervision, but "helmets may protect children from sustaining head injury if they are likely to ride at higher speed."


BHSIDOC #394

3 Page(s)



Ruderman, Seth

Bicycle Injuries in a Suburban Community

Pre-publication paper dated August, 1987.

01/08/87

Article on bicycle injuries catalogs the injury rates. Has an interesting list of how riders said they had fallen, with more than 20 reasons.


BHSIDOC #42

10 Page(s)



SWOV - Netherlands,

Means of Stimulating the Voluntary Use of Bicycle Helmets

SWOV (a Dutch research institute on transport safety) October, 1994

10/01/94

SWOV's studies for the Netherlands Ministry of Transport show that about 2,300 Dutch cyclists suffer head injuries each year. For those under age 20, head injuries account for about half of hospital admissions. Helmet use is not compulsory in the Netherlands, and helmet acceptance is low. Cycling organizations favor promoting helmets, but public interest organizations are wary of making cycling appear dangerous and reducing bicycle use. They favored the current government policy of primarily attempting to reduce accidents and promoting bicycle use. For everyday Dutch cyclists a helmet indicates weakness, ineptitude or exaggerated fears. These cyclists felt dumb in a helmet. For sport cyclists the helmet symbolizes toughness and skill. The report says the government could sponsor research, local demonstration projects, traffic education and development of special facilities for helmet storage. This study explains some of the reactions U.S. cyclists experience when cycling in the Netherlands with their helmets on. This article is a summary of a longer study in Dutch, which we do not have.


BHSIDOC #522

2 Page(s)



Sachs, Harvey and Suzy

A Child's Bicycle Helmet: Build Your Child A Helmet for His Security and Your Peace of Mind

Bicycling Magazine, July, 1978

07/01/78

For historic interest, a "how-to" article for parents on making a hardshell child's helmet. Shows what lengths parents were driven to in the 70's to find a decent child's helmet.


BHSIDOC #108

1 Page(s)



Sacks, Holmgreen, Smith, Sosin,

Bicycle-Associated Head Injuries and Deaths in the U.S. 1984-1988. How Many Are Preventable?

Journal of the American Medical Association, December 4, 1991.

12/04/91

Based on death certificate and emergency room data the authors estimate that 2,500 deaths could have been prevented 1984-1988 if all U.S. cyclists had worn helmets. That's once death per day and one head injury every four minutes. During the period an estimated 2,789,678 cyclists suffered injuries, of which 905,752 (32%) suffered head injuries, including laceration, contusion, concussion or fracture. Of those injured, small children under four and seniors over 80 had the highest head injury rates. But the majority of bicycle-related head injuries involve children under 15, whom the authors recommend be targeted by helmet promotion campaigns. Reprints from Division of Injury Control (F-36), Centers for Disease Control, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Dr. Sacks).


BHSIDOC #416

5 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or CDC.



Saczalski, Kenneth et al.

A Critical Assessment of the Use of Non-Human Responding Surrogates for Safety System Evaluation

(Paper - Source not known.)

/ /

Considers humanoid vs metallic headforms and concludes that rigid headforms do not permit assessment of the true level of protection of a helmet, and may lead to softer liners than should be used. Also notes that human SIC data are not directly useful for rigid headform testing. A thought-provoking paper and we regret that the source was cut off of our original copy.


BHSIDOC #107

27 Page(s)



Safe Kids,

Mandatory Bike Helmet Legislation status report

Safe Kids Are No Accident National Office

05/30/91

A status sheet on mandatory bicycle helmet legislation in various states. Lists enacted laws (CA, NY, MA, MD, PA, OH), plus pending bills. Has status, effective date, regulating agency, ages targeted, riders' weight requirement, helmet standard, penalties, waiver or refund with proof of helmet purchase, education component, helmet discount program, contributory negligence provision, evaluation component. Updated quarterly. Contact Safe Kids, 111 Michigan Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20010, tel. (202) 939-4993.


BHSIDOC #353

1 Page(s)

Media: From Safe Kids. Ours has less detail.



Safe Kids Campaign,

Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Laws newsletter

Safe Kids Campaign, July, 1995

07/01/95

The National Safe Kids Campaign publishes a periodic newsletter on mandatory state bike helmet laws all over the country, including those in legislatures with active chances of passage and those which have been killed in committee. For the latest one, contact Jan Kaplan or Alex Fine at the National SAFE KIDS Campaign, 202-884-4993 or check the most recent one we have, which is up on our website.


BHSIDOC #573

3 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, website or from Safe Kids.



Safe Kids/Scholastic, Inc.,

Teacher's Guide: Supplement to Scholastic News

Scholastic News supplement. Undated but produced in 1990.

01/01/90

A nicely done supplement with articles on "Bike Helmets are Lifesavers," "So They Think Helmets are Uncool," "Kid Survives Bike Crash," "The Right Helmet for the Job," "Rules of the Road," and "Parent's Page." "Resources" lists Safe Kids coalitions and sources for literature. From National Safe Kids Campaign, P. O. Box 4779, Monticello, MN 55365. They have other materials.


BHSIDOC #303

8 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, but better to order from Safe Kids



Safety Equipment Institute,

Safety Equipment Institute Certified Helmets

Safety Equipment Institute, March, 1995.

03/01/95

As of March, 1995, SEI had certified a total of 33 Bell Sports, Inc. helmets and one Troxel model to the ASTM F-1447-1994 standard. SEI is a non-profit which tests and certifies a broad range of safety and protective products. Their latest list of helmets certified is available from them by calling (703) 525-1695. Or write to SEI at 1901 N. Moore St., Suite 808, Arlington, VA 22209. For manufacturers this program is a less expensive alternative to Snell certification. For consumers it is roughly equivalent, except for Snell's more stringent follow-up testing of samples procured from retail outlets.


BHSIDOC #544

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, or up to date list from SEI.



Sage, Cairns, Koelmeyer, Smeeton,

Fatal Injuries to Bicycle Riders in Auckland

New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 98, No. 793, 25 December 1985

12/25/85

Concludes that cyclists may die of other injuries even if helmets protect their heads. Seems to indicate that only 20% would be saved by a helmet. We bundle the article with correspondence between Dr. Chris Morfey of the University of Southampton (U.K.) and the principal author indicating that the percentage with fatal non-head injuries was actually 45%. One "helmeted" rider who was killed wore a "hard shell Brancale helmet," probably one of the pre-1985 Brancale models with a hard shell but no EPS liner, and therefore not much better than a bare head. The letters call into question the conclusions of the original study, as does experience on the road.


BHSIDOC #234

5 Page(s)



Salomon, Warren

Bicycle Helmets: A Market Survey and associated articles Freewheeling Bicycles: Helmet Review

Freewheeling Magazine (Australia), Number 43 July/August 1987

07/01/87

General helmet review covering 16 adult helmets and 5 children's models. Impact performance is assessed by the manufacturer's sticker in the helmet. Some general discussion of helmets and a separate but uninformative section on Helmets for Kids. There is a one page cartoon with nine fanciful international helmets. (The Swiss one has a cuckoo coming out the front, the Indian one is turban-shaped, the British one has a built in umbrella, etc.) A separate article discusses the issue of compulsory helmet usage.


BHSIDOC #32

11 Page(s)



Sargent, James D. et al.

Bicycle-Mounted Child Seats

American Journal of Diseases of the Child, Vol 142, July, 1988

07/01/88

Medical journal analysis of accident data in California related to child seat use on bicycles. Shows that 42% of the injuries occurred when the bicycle crashed or tipped over and 25% when the child fell out of the seat. Sixty-five percent involved the head and face, and 27% of the head injuries were serious. Helmets would help.


BHSIDOC #109

3 Page(s)



Savage, Jim

Bike Helmets: A Study of Their Use by Children of the Eau Claire Area

Eau Claire Police Dept., City of Eau Claire, WI

07/15/93

Reports on a survey of 1,062 fourth and fifth grade children in Eau Claire schools. The students said that: 33% own bike helmets, but only 25% of them wear the helmet every time they ride; 11% said their parents wear helmets, and they were more likely to say they wear a helmet every time they ride; 78% of children who said they own helmets thought helmets prevent injuries; 52% of children who said they did not own a helmet thought helmets prevent injuries; 27% said they did not need a helmet for the riding they do; 46% said they had been involved in bicycle crashes. Grade school teachers know well that the responses on any school survey should be taken with a grain of salt, but this study gives insights into the students attitudes, with charts of typical responses and many individual comments recorded. The author concludes that: many students do not understand the importance of bicycle helmets in preventing injures; many believe that riding close to home they do not need a helmet; parents attitudes are a determining factor, and helmet cost may affect whether or not a child owns a helmet.


BHSIDOC #502

22 Page(s)



Schneider, Lehman, Pflug, Owings

Size and Shape of the Head and Neck from Birth to Four Years

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission/U. of Michigan, June, 1985.

06/01/85

The definitive work on kid's head shapes and sizes, based on measuring and categorizing 300 children, with 34 measurements for each participant. Nearly 500 pages of charts, graphs and discussion (too much for us to copy for you). Compiled by the authors at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 for CPSC, Washington, DC 20207.


BHSIDOC #383

490 Page(s)

Media: FROM CPSC OR U. OF MICHIGAN, NOT BHSI!



Scott, Ian and Kreisfeld, Renate,

Draft Report on Australian Bicycle Helmet Requirements and Education Programs by State and Territory

Natl Injury Surveillance Unit and Child Accident Preven. Foundation

05/09/92

This draft is for a report being prepared for the World Health Organization's helmet initiative. It as a draft with revision notes, and the information in it must be treated as tentative and unverified until the final report is published. Covers miscellaneous points which WHO had requested information on, then provides a rundown on each state and territory's bicycle helmet legislation, including coverage, effective dates, regulatory power, standard required, exemptions, penalties, and a contact name for further information.


BHSIDOC #478

23 Page(s)



Searcy, Laura

A Study of Bicycle Helmet Ownership and Usage Among Elementary School Children

Masters of Nursing thesis, Emory U., May, 1991.

05/01/91

Rigorous thesis describing effectiveness of a helmet promotion campaign vs. a control school. Helmet ownership increased from 20% to 39% (17% to 22% at the control school). Reviews medical literature on lingering effects of child head injuries, epidemiology, helmet effectiveness, promotion strategies. Describes methodology, analyzes data, concludes intervention was "very effective," particularly in grades K-2. Males owned more helmets but females wore theirs more. Two appendices outlining intervention itself are available only from the author, Laura Searcy, 3666 Heatherwood Dr., Marietta, GA 30066. This is a thorough, competent study.


BHSIDOC #424

141 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper (large study!) and from author.



Selbst, et al,

Childhood Bicycle Injuries

American Journal of Diseases of the Child, Vol 141, Feb 1987.

02/01/87

Reports on a Philadelphia study of children's injuries on bicycles. Most of the article deals with the reasons children crash and the types of injuries they sustain. Only three of the patients were wearing helmets. Head and neck injuries were present in 31%, leading to the conclusion that "prevention of some serious injuries may be possible with helmet use."


BHSIDOC #301

8 Page(s)



Self Magazine Staff,

Bike Helmets: Not for Pros Only.

Self Magazine, October 1988, p. 42

10/01/88

Good short blurb on helmets recommending Snell Foundation helmets. Significant mainly because it reached a very different audience from the usual bicycling publications.


BHSIDOC #30

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Shepherd, Ron

Helmet Law Discourages Cycling

Australian Cyclist, October-November, 1991

10/01/91

Reports on one Australian study showing ridership up 22% in New South Wales after a helmet law took effect, but dismisses it as seasonal and premature data. Then concludes based on anecdotal data that ridership is down in Victoria since their helmet law took effect. Cyclists' head injuries dropped 56%, the article's most important point. But other injuries dropped 47%, so concludes that fewer are riding. Reports helmet usage now at 80%, Says "the main effect of the compulsory helmet law seems to have been a reduction in cycling." Anti-helmet rhetoric follows.


BHSIDOC #432

2 Page(s)



Shepherd, Ron

The Helmet Law May Have Been Unnecessary (Australia)

Australian Cyclist and letter from Bicycle Victoria. June, 1994

06/14/94

Ron Shepherd of Bicycle Victoria opposes the Australian compulsory helmet laws, and believes that they may have been unnecessary, since people were going to wear those helmets anyway. In his article he cites a finding from a Monash University study showing that the cyclist head injury trend was downward even before the law was passed, and says that makes the law unnecessary. Another article in the same magazine notes that in the Northern Territory the Transport Minister has limited enforcement of the law to those who ride on roads rather than bike paths. His letter says "You seem to have this all upside down. We hope you don't repeat the mistakes we made here in Australia." A minority view, but an interesting one. Bicycle Victoria's position is that cyclists need better places to ride, helmets are a good idea and helmet laws are not needed.


BHSIDOC #527

3 Page(s)



Shinn and Associates,

BuckleBear's Rules for Cycling

Shinn and Associates, 1992

01/01/92

A package of comic coloring books, puzzles, stickers, hand stamps and other stuff for the BuckleBear program to teach kids to buckle their seatbelts and do other healthy things. For helmets you have BuckleBear's Rules for Cycling coloring book, and Biking With BuckleBear. You can even order a full size BuckleBear suit, and become BuckleBear! We do not distribute these materials, so contact David Shinn, Shinn and Associates, 2853 West Jolly Road, Suite 2, Okemos, Michigan, 48864, tel. (800) 955-8870.


BHSIDOC #480

0 Page(s)

Media: From Shinn and Associates, NOT FROM BHSI!



Siegel, Mark Alan

NY Assy Bill 4905-B: Prohibiting Infants From Riding As Passengers On Bicycles and Requiring Passengers..1-5 Years to Wear Protec. Headgear

Assemblyman Mark Alan Siegel, NY State Assembly

07/11/89

A copy of a New York State Assembly Bill which would prohibit parents from taking a child of less than one year old on a bicycle as a passenger, and require child passengers of one to five years old to wear a helmet. With a cover letter from Assemblyman Siegel asking for support to press the Governor to sign the legislation, which had already been passed by the Assembly.


BHSIDOC #239

5 Page(s)



Simons, Margaret

"Cyclists Query Helmet Standards" plus "Watch Out for These, Say Cyclists" by Rick Burnett

Australian newspapers The Age and The Advertiser

03/01/85

Two articles which appeared in Australian newspapers when the Star and the Rampar helmets were first imported there from Taiwan with non-adjustable nape straps. Both helmets passed the Australian standard but could be easily flipped off the front of most heads even with the chin strap tight. Incident provoked the addition of retention testing to the Australian standard. As of mid-1992, no U.S. standard would flunk the two helmets.


BHSIDOC #12

2 Page(s)



Sinclair, Molly

Bike Helmets: How Much Protection

The Washington Post (newspaper) March 9, 1983

03/09/83

Article announcing the appearance of the WABA study published in Bicycling Magazine in 1983.


BHSIDOC #35

1 Page(s)



Skrabak, Darryl

Helmets: Standards and Suggestions

Bicycling! Magazine, mid-1970's (1976?)

01/01/76

A survey of bicycle helmet development up to the mid-1970's, with good guesses on performance despite a general lack of lab data. Mentions Bailen, Bell, MSR and SkidLid.


BHSIDOC #94

2 Page(s)



Slatis, Anders

Playground Fatalities With Helmets Caught in Equipment

Unpublished letter date March 24, 1992.

03/24/92

The author is a consultant for a Swedish helmet manufacturer. He documents six cases from 1984 to 1992 of asphyxiation by helmet straps when the helmets caught in Swedish or Norwegian playground equipment. All victims were boys under six. "Thirty or forty" more incidents occurred without injury. A new European playground equipment standard bans openings between 110 and 230 mm (4.3 to 9.1 inches) for this reason. The Swedish child helmet standard will require a strap to hold at 90 N (9 kg) but release before 160 N (16 kg), which Slatis believes might have saved two of the six lives lost.


BHSIDOC #418

0 Page(s)



Slobodnik, Bruce A.

SPH-4 Helmet Damage and Head Injury Correlation

U.S.Army Aeromedical Research Lab (USAARL), September, 1980

09/01/80

Evaluates a US Army aircrew helmet using the Wayne State NOCSAE humanoid headform in drops to simulate aircrew crashes. Concludes that head injury occurred well below the 400 g criterion, and below the 1000 HIC threshold used by US DOT. The 400 g criterion prevents death but not injury. Injury occurred in this study at levels as low as 322 g and 355 g. Recommended using 150 g as the peak acceptable level to prevent all concussive injuries. Found that the energy absorbing properties of the SPH-4 helmet were inadequate and recommended increasing the liner thickness and softening the foam in the liner.


BHSIDOC #232

27 Page(s)



Smith, Novenske, Thrush, Lynch,

Bicycle Helmet Curriculum Guide

Michigan Dept. of Public Health, September, 1992.

09/01/92

A teacher's guide for preschool, elementary and middle school classes on bicycle helmet safety. Covers basic injury facts, reasons for having a bicycle helmet lesson, student learning objectives, activities and an evaluation questionnaire to be filled out after the lesson by the teacher. Copies are available from Heather Novenske, Injury Research and Control Section, Center for Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention, Michigan Department of Public Health, 3423 N. Logan/Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd., P. O. Box 30195, Lansing, MI 48909.


BHSIDOC #472

78 Page(s)



Smith, Tees, Thom, Hurt,

Evaluation and Replication of Impact Damage to Bicycle Helmets

Paper at American Assn for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.

06/30/93

The authors collected 72 impacted helmets, primarily from manufacturers' trade-ins. Head injury and impact surface were estimated from the letter accompanying the trade-in. Ten new helmets of the same models were placed on rigid urethane headforms and impacted to produce similar helmet damage. Peak acceleration reached while accomplishing this damage was in the range of 38 g to 179 g, while liner crush measured .8 to 6.6 mm. The authors believe their sample represents the lower end of the impact spectrum. They also note that the rigid headform was not a good approximation for the human head when producing identical damage to the helmets. This probably invalidates any of their conclusions. The helmet damage could be replicated with the rigid headforms with drops of less than 1 meter in most cases. More than half the helmets were impacted on the front, and only one was thought to have sustained a second impact in the same location. Seventy two percent had impacted on a flat surface, 22% on blunt objects and two on sharp edges. The authors concluded that current standards are adequate for the crashes simulated, but express concern that if energy levels for the lab tests called for in standards are increased, the resulting helmets could be less protective for this range of relatively minor crashes. Not available from BHSI. Please contact the American Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.


BHSIDOC #488

0 Page(s)

Media: Not available from BHSI. Contact AAAAM.



Smith, Terry and James Newman,

An Evaluation of the Protective Zones for Bicycle Helmets Using CSA Draft Standard D113.2 Prepared for Canadian Standards Association

Biokinetics and Associates Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

12/01/88

Evaluates nine bicycle helmets for coverage. Concludes that the test zones did not provide sufficient coverage, particularly in frontal and temporal areas. Recommends a new test zone to extend coverage, with several models capable of meeting the requirement already on the market.


BHSIDOC #63

16 Page(s)



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Standard for Protective Headgear 1970 With Appendix III, Jan. 1973.

Snell Foundation

01/01/70

Old Snell Foundation standard for all types of helmets, with an Appendix issued three years later pertaining to bicycle helmets. The 1973 Appendix specified 6 foot drops for both flat and hemispherical anvils, 300 g max peak acceleration, single impact, with a penetration test using a 1 meter drop of a 3 kg. penetrator. This standard was superseded in 1984. Few bicycle helmets met it, and those that did were similar to light motorcycle helmets, weighing two pounds with no vents.


BHSIDOC #25

11 Page(s)

Media: Free from Snell or BHSI Printed on paper.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

1984 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling

Snell Foundation

01/01/84

This 1984 standard was replaced in 1990. Specifies 97.8J (2 meter) drop on flat anvil, 58.7J (1.2 meters) on hemispherical anvil, single impact, 300 g max average peak acceleration with no single test above 330 g. Strap strength test is dynamic jerk from 38 kg weight dropped for 70 mm. No specific headform called out. No rolloff test. Available free from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #26

10 Page(s)

Media: Free from Snell or BHSI Printed on paper.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

1985 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use With Motorcycles and Other Motorized Vehicles.

Snell Foundation

01/01/85

Snell's 1985 standard for motorcycle helmets specified double drop on flat anvil at 150J and 110J, double drop on hemispherical anvil at 150J and 100J, single impact on I-beam anvil at 150J. Peak acceleration must average no more than 285 g and must not exceed 314 g for any impact. Chin bar is impacted by 5 kg weight dropped .6 meters with max deflection of 60 mm. No penetration striker test. The strap strength test is a dynamic jerk from 38 kg weight dropped for 120 mm. In addition to hot, cold and wet samples, one sample is smeared with solvents and tested. The standard is available from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #27

10 Page(s)

Media: Free from Snell or BHSI Printed on paper.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

1985 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use In Competitive Automotive Sport

Snell Foundation

01/01/85

Snell's 1985 standard for auto racing helmets. Specifies double drop on flat anvil at 150J and 110J, double drop on hemispherical anvil at 150J and 100J, single impact on I-beam anvil at 150J, and triple impact on steel bar anvil at 150J, 120J and 100J. Peak acceleration must average no more than 285 g and must not exceed 314 g for any impact. "Appropriately sized headforms of similar configuration (A, C or D DOT FMVSS 218 USA)" are called out. Chin bar is impacted by 5 kg weight dropped .6 meters with max deflection of 60 mm. Penetration test uses 3 kg sharp striker dropped 3 meters. Strap strength test is a dynamic jerk from 38 kg weight dropped for 120 mm. One sample is smeared with solvents and tested. Flammability test. Face shield must withstand a lead pellet fired from an air gun at 500 km/hr. Available from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #28

14 Page(s)

Media: Free from Snell or BHSI Printed on paper.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

1984 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Harness Racing and Other Equestrian Sports

Snell Memorial Foundation publication

01/01/84

Snell Foundation's 1984 standard for harness racing helmets. Specifies single drop on flat, hemispherical and horseshoe-shaped anvils at 145J (3 meter drop equivalent). Max peak acceleration must be below 300 g for four impact average, with no single impact above 330 g's. Strap test is a dynamic jerk from a 38 kg weight dropped 120 mm. Some differences in test impact locations from other Snell standards. Available free from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #29

10 Page(s)

Media: From Snell Foundation or BHSI Printed on paper.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Press Release: Snell Memorial Foundation President Retires: Organization Announces Restructuring

Snell Memorial Foundation

07/08/88

Snell's announcement that Dr. Chichester had retired and been replaced by a five member management team consisting of Alan Titunik, Marshall Irving, Channing Ewing, Suzanne Snively and Harold Fenner. Lists some manufacturers who have Snell certified helmets, but mentions only Bell of the bicycle helmet companies.


BHSIDOC #80

3 Page(s)



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Snell Foundation list of helmets certified to their current standard.

Snell Memorial Foundation (800) 377-4833

06/18/93

Snell has now certified 828 helmets from more than 50 manufacturers to its B-90 standard, compared to only about 70 models from 14 companies certified to Snell's former B-1984 standard over the six years it was in effect. We can supply this list or check for a helmet model for you, but for a more current list call Snell at (516) 862-6440.


BHSIDOC #81

15 Page(s)

Media: From Snell



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Snell Foundation explained, including The Legacy of "Pete" Snell

Snell publications and The Book of Motorcycles,Trail Bikes&Scooters

09/14/64

Various Snell materials explaining the origins and nature of the Foundation. Includes an article by Roderick Aya, one of the Snell Foundation's founders, on its early history and the first Snell standard. Has a list of helmets certified to the Snell 1962 standard as of September 14, 1964.


BHSIDOC #82

12 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Pamphlet: Snell Memorial Foundation: Dedicated to Head Protection in Racing and Recreational Sports

Snell Memorial Foundation

06/21/89

A pamphlet explaining the Snell Foundation, with photos and background on its Board members and a list of manufacturers whose helmets have been certified by Snell.


BHSIDOC #196

12 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Snell.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Draft of ANSI Z90.4 standard and minutes of April, 1995 meeting of the Z90.4 Committee.

Snell as Secretariat for ANSI Z90.4 Committee

04/21/95

Minutes of the ANSI Z90.4 bicycle helmet standard committee meeting in Arlington, VA on April 13, 1995. The committee began with a draft prepared by Snell's Ed Becker, and made some changes. The resulting standard is close to Snell's B-90 standard and to the ASTM 1447/1446 standards. Snell called another ANSI meeting for May 17th in Denver. Paper copies available from the Snell Foundation. Also available on the BHSI website.


BHSIDOC #206

30 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, Fax on Demand or Internet WWW server



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Press Release: Nolan Motorcycle Helmet Barred From Sale By Court Order, After Failing Snell Test

Snell Memorial Foundation press release prepared by Sol Zatt & Co.

05/11/88

Details Snell's legal battle to enforce its standard against Nolan S.P.A., an Italian company whose Snell-approved helmet was changed enough to make it flunk Snell's tests. States that Snell had to take Nolan to court to enforce the contract between them and keep Nolan from marketing the sub-standard helmets with Snell stickers on them.


BHSIDOC #209

5 Page(s)



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Press Release: New Directors and Staff Changes

Snell Memorial Foundation

11/08/90

Announces the appointment of Drs. Richard Snyder and William C. Chilcott to Snell's Board of Directors, hiring of Ed Becker as Chief Engineer and resignation of Alan Titunik from the position of Managing Director. Officers listed: Suzanne Snively, President; Marshall Irving, Secretary (since resigned); and Daniel Thomas, Treasurer.


BHSIDOC #266

3 Page(s)



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Snell Issues 1990 Bicycle Standard - News Release

Snell Memorial Foundation, Box 493, St James, NY 11780

01/10/90

Snell's standard had been updated to require "a small increment of improved performance." Anticipates that most helmets approved under the 1984 standard will pass B-1990. Lists of certified helmets are available from the Foundation at no charge. The new sticker will be blue instead of green. Omits technical info that impact for hemispheric anvil test increased from 58.7 Joules to 65 Joules (1.2 to 1.3 meter drop) and flat anvil from 97.8 J to 100 J (2.0 to just over 2 meter drop), while previously permitted margin of 10% over the 300 g maximum was eliminated.


BHSIDOC #311

16 Page(s)

Media: From Snell or BHSI.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Snell 1990 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling

Copies are available from the Snell Foundation website.

01/01/90

Snell's 1990 update of its bicycle helmet standard is the most informative standard we have ever seen and the clearest for non-technical readers. Covers lab testing, Snell's certification program, random sample testing, and one page describing Snell. Energy management requirements are 2+ meter drop on flat anvil and 1.3 meter drop on hemispheric anvil without exceeding 300 g. Strap must withstand the jerk of a 38 kg weight dropped 70 mm. No rolloff test. New Snell stickers will be blue instead of green. Our helmet standards comparison (BHSIDOC #185) has been updated to include this standard. See review in our 11/90 Update, BHSIDOC #340. For a free copy of the standard contact Snell at Box 493, St James, NY 11780, tel. (516) 862-6440.


BHSIDOC #355

16 Page(s)

Media: From Snell or BHSI.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

Use Your Head, Wear a Helmet (pamphlet)

Snell Memorial Foundation, 1991

01/01/91

Notes head injury can result from shattering the skull and piercing the brain or violently shaking the brain inside the skull. Then covers Your Helmet Should, Elements of a Good Helmet, Finding a Good Helmet (look for the Snell sticker!). Urges reader to fit carefully, always wear, read directions. Has a panel on Snell. Six-panel two-color brochure on twice-folded 8.5 by 11 inch stock. Copies are available from the Snell Foundation.


BHSIDOC #359

2 Page(s)

Media: From Snell or BHSI.



Snell Memorial Foundation,

ANSI Z-90.4 Bicycle Helmet Standard Draft Revision 7/92

Snell Memorial Foundation

07/20/92

This draft was circulated at the last meeting in an annual series of attempts to revise the ANSI Z90.4 bicycle helmet standard, held in July of 1992. The meeting participants marked up this draft, but it died at that point. The Snell Foundation chairs the committee and produced this draft prior to the meeting. Mostly of historical interest.


BHSIDOC #485

22 Page(s)



Snively, George G.

Head Protection: Preventive Medicine in Traffic Safety

Proceedings of the Am. Assn for Automotive Medicine 22nd conference.

07/10/78

A summary of what Snell learned about helmet design and testing during its first 20 years based on study of 617 cases of helmeted head impact in vehicular accidents.


BHSIDOC #61

12 Page(s)



Snively, George G.

Evaluation and Testing of Protective Headgear

Proceedings of the AGARD conference, NATO, 1971

01/01/71

Repeats some of design criteria from 1961 Stapp Conference proceedings (BHSIDOCS #91), then covers penetration tests, retention system tests, impact testing, other comments based on the requirements of the Snell 1970 standard.


BHSIDOC #104

8 Page(s)



Snively, George G.

Minutes of the ANSI Z90 Committee Meeting, Natick, MA, June 28, 1982

Snell Memorial Foundation

06/28/82

Minutes of the historic ANSI Z90 committee meeting where the bicycle helmet standard (Z90.4 1984) was edited into final form. Also discussed were ISO matters, headform availability and the need for a retention test (vs. a simple test of strap strength) for all Z90 standards. WABA proposed raising the impact level to 1.5 meters, but it was "set aside."


BHSIDOC #129

3 Page(s)



Snively and Chichester,

Impact Survival Levels of Head Acceleration in Man

Aerospace Medicine, 32:316-320, April, 1961.

04/01/61

Discusses factors affecting tolerance to g levels. Describes some early testing. Helmets were examined after crashes and g-levels sustained by the wearers was estimated. Concludes that humans can survive even after brief exposure to acceleration in the range of 450 g's or more.


BHSIDOC #90

5 Page(s)



Snively and Chichester,

Evaluation and Design Criteria of Protective Headgear

Proceedings of the Fifth Stapp Conference, 1961

01/01/61

Evaluates design considerations for helmets and reports on the development of Snell's early testing apparatus. Indicated some areas where further research was needed.


BHSIDOC #91

9 Page(s)

Media: Not permitted to Printed on paper.



Sorensen, Susan

How to Get Your Child To Wear A Helmet And Other Important Safety Advice

Bicycling Magazine, June, 1989.

06/01/89

Advice for parents on using fashion and style to overcome peer pressure by making sure the child thinks the helmet is stylish. Recommends parents explain how a helmet works and wear their own helmet. The article's best advice is to teach the child safe riding to avoid needing a helmet in the first place.


BHSIDOC #195

3 Page(s)



Sosin, Sacks and Holmgreen,

Head Injury--Associated Deaths from Motorcycle Crashes: Relationship to Helmet-Use Laws

Journal of the American Medical Association, 11/14/90, Vol 264, No.18

11/14/90

Motorcyclists in states with no helmet law suffer head injuries at a rate almost twice that in helmet law states. In two states where helmet laws were weakened the head injury death rate rose (184% and 73%). One state strengthened its law and the death rate decreased by 44%. The authors, from the U.S. Center for Disease Control, recommend adoption and enforcement of motorcycle helmet laws. Reprints available from Div. of Field Services, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control, Mailstop F-15, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Dr. Sosin).


BHSIDOC #314

5 Page(s)

Media: From Authors or Printed on paper.



Specialized Bicycles,

Free Offer: Setting New Standards for Safety Helmets as Routine Equipment..

Specialized Bicycles press release and ad, April, 1991.

04/03/91

A promotion by Specialized giving away a helmet with each of four models of their bicycles sold between April 15 and June 15, 1991. Compares helmets to air bags as standard equipment.


BHSIDOC #390

3 Page(s)



Spolander, Krister

Comfort and Handability of Bicycle Helmets (in Swedish)

National Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute, #242

01/01/82

Done in 1982 when helmets were lacking in consumer appeal, this study used ride test results for six helmets: the Bailen, Bell Biker, Bell Prime, Brancale, Nava and a racer's leather "hairnet" (the last two included as controls and known to be less protective than the others) to demonstrate that there were improvements needed in buckles, fit, ventilation and weight. It concludes that expanding helmet use will require those improvements. Time has shown the author was on the right track. The subjects accurately distinguished the more protective helmets, felt safer in them, but did not increase their riding speed as a result. This document is mostly in Swedish, but has an abstract and a 5 page summary in English. We send just the English part unless you ask for the whole thing.


BHSIDOC #507

73 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper: 5 page English summary or all.



Squires, Sally and Lawrence G. Prouix,

Having a Lousy Time at School: Parasitic Head Lice are More a Nuisance than a Threat to Health

Washington Post, April 4, 1995

04/04/95

The best article we have seen on head lice and their transmission, a potential problem for bike rental shops and other helmet-using programs. The National Pediculosis Foundation recommends vacuuming and wiping out helmets, noting that a louse can survive less than 24 hours, but the nits (eggs) left on a hair in a helmet could survive up to 10 days. The helmet can also be sealed in a plastic bag for two weeks. We at BHSI tried disinfecting with a microwave, which did not do visible damage to the helmet for one 15 second use, but overheated some materials and would not be a good solution for repeated uses.


BHSIDOC #578

2 Page(s)



Stalnaker, Fogle,

Driving Point Impedance Characteristics of the Head

Journal of Biomechanics (UK),Vol 4 pp 127-139. Pergamon Press 1971

01/01/71

Describes experiments to determine the mechanical impedance of the human head using accelerometers and pressure transducers in cadavers and monkeys. A head impedance model is formulated based on this research, using two masses connected by a spring and a damper. This research led to later articles on the New Mean Strain Criterion, the Translational Head Injury Model (THIM) and the Translational Energy Criterion (TEC). Fourteen references.


BHSIDOC #218

16 Page(s)



Stalnaker, Lin, Guenther,

The Application of the New Mean Strain Criterion (NMSC)

IRCOBI--International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts, 1985

06/24/85

Describes an update of the Mean Strain Criterion introduced in the mid 1970's to achieve a better fit with human head data. Adds a second damper to the combination damper and spring of the old MSC to improve prediction of brain injury and skull fracture. Compares the New Mean Strain Criterion with cadaver impact results, finding a close fit. Concludes that "the NMSC is useful in predicting the potential for injury during a translational head impact."


BHSIDOC #214

20 Page(s)



Stalnaker, Low, Lin,

Translational Energy Criteria and Its Correlation with Head Injury in the Sub-Human Primate.

IRCOBI--Int'l Research Council on the Biokinetics of Impacts, 1987

01/01/87

Presents new head injury criteria called the Translational Energy Criteria (TEC), based on updated head models called Translational Head Injury Models. The paper concludes that the new TEC is closely correlated to the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) but "was more comprehensive and revealed more injury data than the HIC."


BHSIDOC #215

16 Page(s)



Stutts, Williamson,Sheldon,

Bicycle Accidents: An Examination of Hospital Emergency Room Reports and Comparison with Police Accident Data.

Presented at 67th annual Transportation Research Board, Washington

01/11/88

Compares hospital emergency room data and police data over the same period, concluding that police data do not include many bicycle crashes, both those involving motor vehicles and those which do not. Less than 1% of the sample wore helmets. Some type of head injury was present in 24% of the cases. About 6% of the 649 riders required hospitalization, of whom nearly a third had head injuries. Six died, all with head injuries and none with a helmet. Recommends that use of helmets be promoted. Has 30 references.


BHSIDOC #302

35 Page(s)



Sunderland and Wessenberg, T.A.,

Racers React to Helmet Rule, and Helmet News

California Bicyclist, Nov, 1985 and Western Wheelers Flat Tyre, 11/85

11/01/86

Racer's reaction to the USCF ruling that they had to wear helmets meeting the ANSI Z90.4 standard. Also reported in WABA, BHSIDOC #162.


BHSIDOC #120

1 Page(s)



Superstar Comics,

The Helmet Zone

Superstar Comics, 1992.

01/01/92

A comic book adventure where Bill hits his head falling from his bike and dreams about the Knucklehead Hall of Fame, then various sports (baseball, auto racing, football, skateboarding) where helmets are essential in the Helmet Zone. He wakes up converted. Fifteen types of helmets are illustrated on the last page. Has ads for Rhode Gear helmets on the back. Available from Head First Promotions, P. O. Box 1746, Plainville, MA 02762.


BHSIDOC #464

0 Page(s)

Media: FROM HEAD FIRST, NOT FROM BHSI.



Sutcliffe, Frank

The Hidden Agenda (Contributory Negligence Issues)

Bicycle Magazine (UK), March 1991.

03/01/91

Warns cyclists they may be held partially responsible for their injuries if they are not wearing a helmet. Cites moped and seatbelt cases. Main concern is that cyclists will not realize that they could be subject to loss of compensation. Recommends compulsory helmet laws as the only good way to avoid the problem. An additional page from the same issue of Bicycle Magazine has an article by racer Tony Doyle, who believes personally in the protective qualities of helmets.


BHSIDOC #345

3 Page(s)



Sutton, Remar

Who Needs A Helmet?

Reader's Digest, May, 1991.

05/01/91

A standard Reader's Digest treatment, with some personalized examples, a few statistics, and quotes from authorities in the field. Then notes there are no helmet laws, and suggests steps you can do to help. A nice article in a magazine read by 28 million people in 15 languages.


BHSIDOC #393

1 Page(s)

Media: Reader's Digest reprint, 50 cents (our cost).



Swart, Randy

Helmet Users' Test

Bicycling Magazine, June, 1979

06/01/79

Results of helmet testing by a 31-member test panel of riders, covering ventilation, sweat control, weight, interference with eyeglasses, convenience, what to look for. Tested helmets were made by Bell, CCM, Cooper, ERB, Franklin, Johnson, Kunoh, MSR, Safetech, Shoei and a generic hairnet. Old, and no impact data, but still some good ideas there on fit and comfort. Longer and more detailed version was published by WABA and is available as BHSIDOCS #71 under WABA.


BHSIDOC #70

8 Page(s)



Swart, Randy

Bike Show Helmet Report A Mixed Bag

Pro Bike News, Vol. 7 No. 5, May, 1987

05/01/87

An article reprinted from the WABA Helmet Update covering news from the New York cycle show in February, 1987.


BHSIDOC #86

1 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper



Swart, Randy

Helmets

BikeReport, magazine of Bikecentennial, June/July 1984.

06/01/84

An overview of helmets on the market in 1984, including a capsule summary of strengths and weakness of each model.


BHSIDOC #87

4 Page(s)



Swart, Randy

Time to Buy a New Helmet: Has Your Old One Seen Better Days?

Bicycle USA, March/April, 1987

03/01/87

Covers the various factors to consider when deciding whether or not to replace a helmet. Does not cover soft-shells.


BHSIDOC #100

3 Page(s)



Swart, Randy

Using Your Head About Bike Safety

Headlines: News from New Medico Head Injury System. July/August 1987

07/01/87

Readable short Q and A format article covering basics only. Not much in the way of statistics or detail.


BHSIDOC #101

1 Page(s)



Swart, Randy

Letter responding to Cyclist's Touring Club position on helmets.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

04/10/89

A BHSI response to Ralph Hirsch, U.S. observer at the European Cycling Federation, to the issues raised by the British Cyclist's Touring Club in their position opposing helmets.


BHSIDOC #170

7 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or on disk.



Swart, Randy

Hard Facts About Bicycle Helmets

Cycling Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, December, 1989.

01/12/89

An overview of then-current helmets by BHSI's Director. Topics include Hard and Soft Shell Helmets, How They Compare, The Retention System, Helmet Ventilation and Cooling, Aerodynamic Helmets, Snell and ANSI Helmet Standards. Thoroughly edited by Cycling Science editor Chet Kyle, who shaped it for this new magazine's technical and performance orientation, and who provided the material on aerodynamic helmets.


BHSIDOC #253

4 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Cycling Science.



Swart, Randy

Soft Shell Versus Hard Shell Helmets

Cycling Science, December, 1990

12/01/90

Describes differences between soft shell and hard shell helmets. Reports on Voigt Hodgson's first study on sliding resistance (BHSIDOC # 310) with photos of Hodgson's test rig, some of his data and conclusions. Concludes "it is not possible to determine from Hodgson's data whether removing the hard shell from bicycle helmets has made any significant difference in the wearers' safety." (Hodgson's second study was more definitive.)


BHSIDOC #343

5 Page(s)



Swart, Randy

Randy's Notes on a "Shirtsleeves" meeting at ASTM.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

12/06/94

Notes on a technical meeting which preceded the December meeting of the ASTM F-80 headgear committee. The notes were prepared for members who had not been at the meeting. Discussion was on test lines, toddler helmets, headform weights, spray vs. immersion for wet sample testing and the severity of suspension system tests in various standards. Includes a chart comparing the strength of the jerk under ASTM, ANSI, Snell (various), CSA and the CPSC draft.


BHSIDOC #521

4 Page(s)

Media:



Swart, Randy

Notes From A Shirtsleeves Meeting at ASTM, Denver, May 18, 1995

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, unpublished paper, May, 1995

05/18/95

Notes from a technical meeting preceding the main ASTM meeting. Topics discussed included reflectivity, test lines, Canadian infant-toddler standard draft, spray boxes, rolloff tests and a downhill racing standard.


BHSIDOC #583

2 Page(s)



Swedish Board for Consumer Policies,

Bicycle Helmet Guidelines

Swedish Board for Consumer Policies KOVFS 1985:6, Stockholm

11/08/85

Swedish bicycle helmet "guidelines" requiring drops of 1.5 meters on flat anvil and imparted force test with a 25 mm radius striker. Has a chin strap strength test and a test requiring visor flexibility. Our copy is incomplete because we need the various other standards for headforms, etc, to which these guidelines refer. Should be replaced by a European standard.


BHSIDOC #186

8 Page(s)



Swedish Nat'l Road and Traffic Res. Inst.,

Safer Cycling: Problem Analysis and Recommendations for Measures..

Swedish National Road and Traffic Research Institute, VTI Rapport 280

01/01/85

A 1985 report on cycling safety in Sweden and measures needed. Since this is an overview, helmets came number 12 on the list of measures, after improving the cycling environment, equipment and education of riders. The study's principal significance is in showing that Swedes in 1985 recognized that helmets were a small but important element in reducing cycling injuries, and other measures could achieve more. There is actually almost nothing on helmets in the nine English language pages except a description of measures already being taken in 1985, which included a prize competition for new helmet designs, more forceful information campaigns and mandatory helmets for children taken as passengers on bicycles.


BHSIDOC #508

104 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper: 9 English pages or all.



Technisearch,

Bicycle Products: Brakes, Lights and Helmets (excerpt on helmets)

Report to the State Bicycle Committee, Victoria, Australia

06/01/81

The helmet section of a much longer study. General survey of helmets on the Australian market and results of testing 14 of them to the then-current AS standard. Has a chart comparing energy levels in joules of various standards of that period.


BHSIDOC #18

27 Page(s)



Thomas, Steven et al,

Effectiveness of Bicycle Helmets in Preventing Head Injury in Children: Case-Control Study

British Medical Journal, 15 January 1994, Volume 308

01/15/94

An Australian emergency room study based on 445 children, 102 of them with head injuries. Three quarters were male, and age did not seem to be a factor. Most of the riders reported that they had fallen without contact with another vehicle. Head injuries were more likely to occur on pavement than on gravel or dirt. The authors conclude that bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head injury by 63%, and the risk of loss of consciousness by 86%. They note that an emergency room study is biased because riders who fall but are not injured would not come in, so if helmets are effective the helmeted riders would be less likely to need treatment in the first place. They concluded that an unhelmeted rider would probably not be inhibited about seeking treatment for a head injury despite the state's mandatory helmet law. They also noted that their study did not address the possibility that non-helmet wearers take more risks.


BHSIDOC #489

4 Page(s)



Thompson, Larry

Head Protection

L.A. Times article in Las Vegas Review-Journal, September 3, 1991

09/03/91

An otherwise standard bike helmet safety article which quotes the Bicycle Market Research Institute in Boston as saying that more than 4 million bicycle helmets were sold in the U.S. in 1990. This is the only recent estimate we have seen that might have some research behind it, but there are no further details.


BHSIDOC #427

2 Page(s)



Thompson and Rivara,

Incidence of Bicycle-Related Injuries in a Defined Population

American Journal of Public Health, November, 1990, Vol 80, No. 11.

11/01/91

Seattle emergency room data show annual injury rates of 163 per 100,000 population and head injury rates of 42 per 100,000. These rates are for emergency room-treated injuries only. Riders between 5 and 14 are at highest risk. Males suffer more injuries than females. This study is designed as an aid to program planners. It has 21 references and includes a Clarification of one of the tables. Reprints from Diane C. Thompson, MS, Research Coordinator, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, 3225 Ninth Avenue, ZX-10, Seattle, WA 98104.


BHSIDOC #318

4 Page(s)

Media: From author or BHSI Printed on paper.



Thompson, Rivara & Thompson,

A Case-Control Study of the Effectiveness of Bicycle Safety Helmets

New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 320, No. 21, May 25, 1989.

05/25/89

A frequently-cited article presenting the results of a one year study of bicyclists' head injuries, including one group of 235 head-injured cyclists, another group of 433 injured without head injuries, and 558 others who had suffered cycling injuries during the past year. The authors concluded that helmets reduce the chance of head injury by 85% and the chance of brain damage by 88%. We add the press release from Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound which accompanied the article's release.


BHSIDOC #190

10 Page(s)



Thompson, Rivara & Wolf,

A Case-Control Study of the Effectiveness of Bicycle Safety Helmets in Preventing Facial Injury

American Journal of Public Health, Dec. 1990, Vol 80, No. 12.

01/12/90

Concludes that helmets have no effect on the risk of serious facial injury and do not protect the lower face, but do offer some protection against serious injuries of the upper face. Reprints available from Diane C. Thompson, MS, Research Coordinator, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, ZXC-10, Seattle, WA 98104.


BHSIDOC #313

4 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Harborview.



Thompson, et al,

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Bicycle Helmet Subsidies in a Defined Population

Pediatrics, Vol 91, No. 5 May 1993

05/01/93

Tested hypothetical subsidy programs at various levels and found that in a cohort of 100,000 child riders over 5 years, increasing helmet use by 40 to 50 per cent with subsidies of 5 to 10 dollars to bring helmet costs down to $14 to $20 per helmet would result in savings of $189,207 to $427,808. Retail helmet prices have dropped since then, but the analytical method is explained to permit updating with current data.


BHSIDOC #548

6 Page(s)



Toronto City Cycling Committee,

Pamphlet: Use Your Head: Use a Helmet and Bike Safely!

Toronto City Cycling Committee/Children's Bike Helmet Coalition, 1991

01/01/91

A twice-folded two-color pamphlet on yellow legal stock, with panels on why use a helmet, how helmets work, standards, hard/thin/soft shells ("the hard shell will stand up to general wear and tear better"), advice for parents, fitting (with good illustrations), care and where to find more info. Also has a clever cartoon: kid in emergency room with scalp wound says he did not wear a helmet because "I didn't want to mess up my hair."


BHSIDOC #405

2 Page(s)



Toronto City Cycling Committee,

Report..on Proposed Mandatory Bike Helmet Legislation

Toronto (Canada) City Cycling Committee, December 1991 (sic)

12/01/92

An analysis of issues related to Bill 124, Toronto's mandatory helmet proposal. Has background, guiding principles, summary conclusions and recommendations. Recommendations: establish and implementation advisory committee, budget $800,000 (Canadian) annually for public awareness campaigns, establish training for staff at mass market retailers, commit to enforcement under Selective Traffic Enforcement Programs, allocate fines to bicycle education, phase in over one year, improve bicycle safety education in various ways, subsidize low income riders' helmets, eliminate taxes on helmets, and more. Useful as a catalog of almost every possible string one could attach to approval of bicycle helmet legislation. We add a March, 1993 issue of the Toronto City Cycling newsletter with updated status information.


BHSIDOC #479

17 Page(s)



Tracy, Linda

Bicycle Helmet Bibliography

Bicycle Federation of America

01/01/89

An unannotated bibliography of 125 articles and other citations on bicycle helmets. Note on page 1 says "These bibliographic citations are based on sources cited in several publications. No attempt has been made to cross check each cite for accuracy. Additions and corrections are appreciated. Prepared by Linda Tracy 1/89."


BHSIDOC #135

10 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Bicycle Federation.



Tracy, Linda

Review of Bicycle Helmet Promotion in the U.S.

NHTSA Study conducted by Bicycle Federation of America in 1991.

03/01/92

Based on 262 survey responses from 230 helmet promotion and other organizations, concludes: (1) Most campaigns target children; (2) Most include presentations, literature, media, incentive to purchase within a time limit; (3) Most are by local community-based coalitions; (4) Most do not include evaluation; (5) Most budgets are below $5,000/year, mostly in-kind donations; (6) "Promotions" include technical assistance and motivation given to others. Campaign materials are readily available. Still needed: evaluations, better data, and more info on high risk populations, successful campaign models, and reasons for non-use of helmets. Available from Darlene Curtin, NHTSA, U.S. Department of Transportation, NTS-23, 400 Seventh Street SW, Washington, DC 20590. BFA's principal researcher for the project, Linda Tracy, can be reached at (406) 543-8113.


BHSIDOC #455

0 Page(s)

Media: From NHTSA.



Triathlon Times Staff,

Does the Monarch Aerodyne Helmet Meet ANSI or Snell Approval?

Triathlon Times, August, 1989.

08/01/89

An article tracing the various models of the Monarch Aerodyne helmet since 1986 and its various models, detailing which ones are "designed to meet ANSI Z90.4 specifications." Only the ANSI models can be used in officially sanctioned Triathlons.


BHSIDOC #292

2 Page(s)



U.S. Centers for Disease Control,

Injury Control Recommendations: Bicycle Helmets

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 1995:44 RR-1

02/17/95

This is the first U.S. Government publication which attempts to make comprehensive recommendations for helmet promotion. Introductory material covers bicycling, helmets, standards, barriers to helmet use and means of increasing helmet use. The Recommendations include: every bicycle ride should wear a helmet whenever they ride; the helmets should meet the ANSI, ASTM or Snell standards; states and communities should legislate and educate to increase helmet use. Appendices cover some elements of legislation, components of a community-based helmet promotion campaign and some of the organizations providing information on bicycle helmet campaigns. The narrowly drawn recommendations follow formulas used for any U.S. injury prevention strategy, including a heavy reliance on legislation. There is no acknowledgment that Australia and New Zealand have already done all of this successfully or that we might profit from their experience. One very useful chart (available on our web server and included with our helmet law sheet on our Fax on Demand service) outlines some evaluations of helmet campaigns and laws. The whole 24 page pamphlet is available on the CDC website at http://www.crawford.com/cdc/mmwr/mmwr_rr.html or from us for 55 cents postage.


BHSIDOC #506

24 Page(s)

Media: From BHSI or CDC.



U.S. Centers for Disease Control,

Injury Mortality: Pedal Cyclists 1986-1992

U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Dept Health and Human Services 1995

05/11/95

Statistics on pedal cyclist deaths and death rates in the U.S. for the years 1986 to 1992, broken down by age, race and sex. We have some of these numbers up on our website.


BHSIDOC #580

7 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Snell Bike Helmet Standard Comparison (Snell B-1984 and B-1990)

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1991

01/01/91

A detailed comparison of Snell's 1984 and 1990 standards, probably prepared by Scott Heh or John Preston of CPSC. Included in briefing materials for the Commissioners in June, 1991.


BHSIDOC #377

8 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Comparison of ANSI Z90.4-1984 and Snell B-1984 Standards

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1991.

01/01/91

A comparison of the ANSI and Snell standards issued in 1984, probably prepared by Scott Heh and John Preston of CPSC. Included in briefing materials for the Commissioners in June, 1991, even though the Snell standard had already been updated to Snell's B-1990 by then.


BHSIDOC #378

1 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Briefing Package, Petition CP 90-1, Bicycle Helmets

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

06/18/91

Briefing materials for the CPSC Commissioners when they considered issuing a bicycle helmet standard. Cover background on the petition for a standard submitted by the Consumer Federation of America and others (including BHSI), the current voluntary standards, need for helmets, injury rates. The Staff recommends denial of the petition. It was denied on the grounds that the voluntary standards (Snell, ANSI) were effective and a U.S. Government standard would not help. More of the materials are found in other BHSIDOCS. This general part is useful for understanding the Commission's decision.


BHSIDOC #379

26 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Preliminary Market Sketch: Bicycle Helmets by Mary F. Donaldson

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, June, 1990

06/01/90

Brief economic analysis covering manufacturers, sales statistics, usage. Estimates helmet sales at 750,000 in 1988, between 800,000 and 1,000,000 in 1989, and a million or more per year thereafter. Reflects the dearth of good industry data on helmet sales. Ninety seven references.


BHSIDOC #380

11 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

List of Bicycle Helmet Manufacturers and Distributors.

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, June, 1991.

07/01/91

A list of 38 manufacturers and distributors, mostly in the U.S., with addresses for those who were still in business. Our own list is more extensive and more current so we will provide both if you ask for this one.


BHSIDOC #381

12 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Bicycle Helmets and Head Injury, by Margarita Collantes

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, November, 1989

11/01/89

Summarizes the available scientific data on head injury and helmet research. Discusses issues in evaluating the adequacy of bicycle helmet standards. Says more research needed to determine "what are the appropriate impact attenuation criteria to prevent head injury" as well as issues relating to sliding resistance, child's helmets and protection of the temples. Eighty-six references.


BHSIDOC #382

39 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Comments on Proposed Rule: Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets 1994.

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Comments on the CC94-2

10/31/94

A compilation of more than 30 comments received by CPSC on their draft bicycle helmet standard. Includes comments by researchers, manufacturers, test labs, consumer organizations (including BHSI) and others. Comments covered almost every aspect of the standard. Available from CPSC (Sadye E. Dunn, Secretary, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC 20207). Our own comments are of course available from BHSI by Fax-on-Demand, Internet website or Printed on paper as BHSIDOC #525. In addition, BHSIDOC #512 has the analysis of these comments by an ASTM task force. The draft itself is BHSIDOC #534, and it is available on our Fax-on-Demand service as well as the CPSC gopher server. Will be history when the new CPSC draft is issued, probably late summer of 1995.


BHSIDOC #524

0 Page(s)

Media: From CPSC.



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Draft Federal Bicycle Helmet Standard, August, 1994 (First Draft)

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

08/15/94

CPSC's first draft for its Federal bicycle helmet standard, which we reported on in the Helmet Update. It is similar to the ASTM standard in severity of test impacts, with slightly better coverage required. This copy comes from the CPSC gopher server, but we have the Federal Register version on our Fax-on-Demand service.


BHSIDOC #534

23 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, Fax-on-Demand or www link.



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Briefing Materials: Revision of Bicycle Helmet Standard, Aug 30, 1995

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

08/30/95

Two pounds of paper prepared for the Commission by Scott Heh and others at CPSC to present the proposed second draft of their bicycle helmet standard. Includes the standard, recommended revisions, lab staff comments, human factors comments, epidemiological comments, regulatory office comments, and some technical info on small business, environment and paper reduction act effects. We have the relevant part of this material up on our Internet server and our fax server. That includes the standard as BHSIDOC# 561 and the Federal Register notice with comments as BHSIDOC# 562. Those two documents will satisfy most needs. We don't really want to duplicate the rest of this on paper but will if you need it and can't get a copy from: Scott Heh, Project Manager, Directorate for Engineering Sciences, Rm. 734, Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC 20207. Phone (301) 504-0494 or fax (301) 504-0124. If you request it from us, allow two weeks for duplicating.


BHSIDOC #560

227 Page(s)

Media: From CPSC.



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Proposed Revisions to bicycle helmet rule: Federal Register notice

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, August 30, 1995

11/26/95




BHSIDOC #561

62 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from CPSC.



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Comments on Federal Register notice: Revisions to bicycle helmet Standard

U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, August, 1995

08/30/95

Point by point analysis of changes in the second draft of CPSC's helmet standard. Part of the briefing package prepared for the Commission when the changes were considered.


BHSIDOC #362

62 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

Kids Speak Out On: Bike Helmets

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission/AAA, June, 1995

06/01/95

A joint study of CPSC and the American Automobile Association based on a national AAA survey of children age 8 to 13 on children's feelings about bike helmets and their suggestions for making them more appealing. The kids were generally aware of the risks of riding without a helmet but many said they refuse to wear them because of fit (46%) fashion (don't geek me-25%), or sweat. They suggested redesigning the look and fit of helmets, as well as laws, commercials with role models, decorations and other improvements. We have the study, a pamphlet and the CPSC press release.


BHSIDOC #568

11 Page(s)



U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,

CPSC, PTI Announce Recall of Jaguar Bike Helmets - News Release

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission News Release, April 24, 1995

04/24/95

Announces that "in cooperation with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), Protective Technologies International, Inc. (PTI) of Yonkers, N.Y., is recalling 25,000 Jaguar bicycle helmets, model 3060. The helmet liners failed the manufacturer's head impact tests and may not prevent injuries." The helmets were child helmets sold at Toys 'R' Us and Target stores from September 1994 to January 1995. This was the first helmet recall after the CPSC interim standard went into effect on March 16, 1995. PTI has informed us that the recall was voluntary. Helmet recalls typically net very few of the defective helmets.


BHSIDOC #582

2 Page(s)



U.S. Department of Transportation,

DOT-NHTSA Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Motorcycle Helmets

U.S. Dept. of Transportation, published in Fed Register and handout

04/06/88

DOT 1988 motorcycle helmet standard. Dr. William J. J. Liu was the Safety Engineer. Published in Federal Register, Vol 53, No. 66, April 6, 1988, pp. 11280-11297 and Vol 53, No. 73, April 15, 1988, pp. 12528-12533, supplemented by a handout from Dr. Liu titled "Motor Vehicle Safety Standard Number 218" revised 4/6/88. Main differences from ANSI or Snell motorcycle helmet standards are in the requirement that g forces be measured over time ("dwell time") rather than simply measuring peak g. Dr. Liu bases this approach on the original Wayne State curve, which showed injury zones related to time exposure to various levels of g force. Requires double impacts at each site from 54.5" (hemispherical anvil) and 72" (flat anvil), with max of 400 g's, or max of 200 g's over 2.0 ms or 150 g's over 4.0 ms. Has static strap strength test with 300 pound pull. Penetration striker is 3 kg dropped 3 meters. Specifies DOT headforms and monorail drop rig.


BHSIDOC #9

41 Page(s)



U.S. Department of Transportation,

Press Release: NHTSA, CPSC Join to Promote Bicycle Safety

U.S. Department of Transportation

05/15/89

A press release describing DOT cooperation with the Consumer Product Safety Commission to "coordinate national, state and local efforts to expand public understanding of the bicycle safety program, and to conduct cooperative safety activities." Timed to support the Safe Kids campaign.


BHSIDOC #271

2 Page(s)



U.S. Department of Transportation,

Prevent Bicycle Accidents: A Message for Parents

USDOT/Natl Highway Traffic Safety Administration

01/01/89

A two sided sheet produced in conjunction with Safe Kids which features basic reasons to teach bike safety and have your child wear a helmet on one side, and Five Common Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Accidents described and pictured on the back. Last line invited reader to write for more info to U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 7th Street S.W., Washington, D.C. 20590.


BHSIDOC #222

2 Page(s)



U.S. Department of Transportation - NHTSA,

Study Shows Benefits of Using Safety Belts and Motorcycle Helmets

U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA, press release May 10, 1995

05/10/95

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sponsored a study showing that motorcycle helmets are 33 percent effective in preventing fatalities and 67 percent effective in preventing brain injuries. Surprisingly, the average cost of care for motorcycle riders crashing bareheaded was only 1.3 times that of the helmeted riders. We only have the press release, not the full study.


BHSIDOC #576

2 Page(s)



U.S. Dept of Transportation - NHTSA,

Traffic Safety Facts 1994: Pedalcyclists

U. S. Dept. of Transportation - Natl.Highway Traffic Safety Admin.

01/01/95

Statistics on cyclist fatalities and fatality rates. Has ten year trend, ten year fatalities (1990 was 859, 1991 was 843, 1992 was 723, 1993 was 816, 1994 was 802). Has fatality rates by age and sex as well as a state breakdown for 1994. We have these stats on our website and Fax-on-Demand server.


BHSIDOC #565

4 Page(s)



U.S. Patent Office,

Patent on a design for Chinstrap Construction for Football Helmets



01/26/65

U.S. patent brief for Mr. Elwood Strolum's patent of a chinstrap which anchors at four points on the helmet. Now used on many football helmets, and discomfort of it is reason pro football players can be seen unfastening their helmet strap after every play. Is also the reason one QB lost his helmet completely during the 1989 Superbowl game, since he forgot to refasten the strap before the next play.


BHSIDOC #41

4 Page(s)



UCLA School of Public Health,

Fifty Simple Things You Can Do to Save Your Life

Earthworks Press, 5045 Doyle St #W, Emeryville, CA 94608 (510)652-8533

01/01/92

Paperback on basic health strategies with a two-page section on using bicycle helmets. Basic info, lists BHSI as a reference. We provide only press release describing the book--contact Earthworks for a copy.


BHSIDOC #425

4 Page(s)

Media: FROM EARTHWORKS PRESS.



USA Today Staff,

Lifeline: Trends, Talk and What's Worth Trying Bicycle Riders are Sizing Up...Bicycle Magazine's helmet study

USA Today, March 3, 1983.

03/03/83

Article about the publication of WABA's 1983 Bicycling Magazine article.


BHSIDOC #38

1 Page(s)



Ulrich, John

Protecting Your Head with Snell '75

Reprinted from May 1979 Cycle World (motorcycle magazine)

05/01/79

General motorcycle audience article on helmets and standards. Recommends looking for the Snell sticker. First page is reverse video (white on black background) which did not copy well, so it is hard to read.


BHSIDOC #55

2 Page(s)



University of Alberta Hospitals,

Got Your Skid Lid?

Vital Signs, University of Alberta Hospitals, September 1991.

09/01/91

Despite the title, this article reports on a discount program to purchase good helmets arranged by the UAH for their staff. They bought over 450 helmets, saving the staff members a total of $7,000. Prices were discounted 25 to 33 per cent.


BHSIDOC #404

1 Page(s)



Various,

Crash Stories

Various

02/09/91

A collection of articles from newspapers, magazines, club newsletters and personal accounts of people who have crashed. All of them illustrate in some way why you should wear a helmet. Send us more of these!


BHSIDOC #305

8 Page(s)



Various,

Statistics Package

Various fact sheets and articles

01/01/90

Fact sheets and articles with statistics for media researchers, workshop speakers, students, or anyone needing data. Covers bike injuries and fatalities, helmet effectiveness, health care costs. Updated as new sources arrive. Faxable if you are pressed for time.


BHSIDOC #329

12 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper, Fax-on-Demand or WWW.



Various,

Safe Kids Campaign. A collection of articles.

Various

03/01/89

Articles related to or generated by the Safe Kids campaign 1989-1990. Shows the effectiveness of this mass media campaign.


BHSIDOC #203

20 Page(s)



Various,

Child Seats. A collection of articles.

Various

09/01/88

Pro and con articles on child seats note the risks and hazards of taking a child along on your bicycle and some safety rules for using child seats if you must.


BHSIDOC #204

10 Page(s)



Various,

Articles on the Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

Various

01/01/89

A collection of articles from magazines and newspapers describing BHSI. New ones are added as they are published.


BHSIDOC #220

6 Page(s)



Various,

Australian and Canadian Anti-Helmet Law Articles

Australian and Canadian press.

01/01/90

Articles about an Australian group protesting mandatory helmet laws by riding nude through the streets clad only in helmets with signs saying "Cyclists need more than helmets." The accompanying photo is a modest shot taken from behind. The Canadian article is a letter from Claire Morissette stating that Le Monde a Bicyclette is opposed to compulsory helmet laws because they make the victims responsible for their injuries and obscure the real problem of not giving cyclists safe facilities.


BHSIDOC #321

1 Page(s)



Various,

CPSC to Study Need for Helmet Standard

Pro Bike News, Washington Post

06/01/90

Articles on the petition to CPSC for a national helmet standard (BHSIDOC #174) and CPSC's response. Quotes Mary Ellen R. Fise, author of the petition, saying that the Consumer Reports failure of several helmets for poor retention system effectiveness or impact protection dramatizes the need for a national standard.


BHSIDOC #336

3 Page(s)



Various,

Helmet Law Articles

Numerous newspapers and magazines.

07/01/90

Articles from various sources on mandatory helmet laws.


BHSIDOC #341

3 Page(s)



Various,

Articles on Ride Safe, Inc., a for-profit helmet promotion campaign.

Various newspapers.

04/01/91

Ride Safe is a for-profit company organized by Dane and Mary Beth Lurhsen to promote bicycle helmets through campaigns put on by schools and other civic organizations. They provide materials in a promotion kit, samples, discounted helmets and an expert on fitting day. Their territory is mostly mid-western. The Luhrsens are cyclists with three children and a well-developed sense of civic responsibility. Their address is 1944 Hampton Dr., Wheaton, IL 60187, tel. (708) 668-0640.


BHSIDOC #413

3 Page(s)



Various,

Mandatory Helmet Law texts

Various legislatures and city governments.

01/01/92

Texts of laws and ordinances on mandatory bicycle helmets. Some adopted, some not. (For latest status, see Safe Kids report listed as BHSIDOC # 353.) Includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Washington State, the Counties of Howard and Montgomery in Maryland, and the City of Westfield, NJ. Others added as they arrive. Laws only, see BHSIDOC # 341 under 'Various' for other materials on this subject.


BHSIDOC #431

25 Page(s)



Various,

Discount Helmet Programs

Helmet discount sales program brochures and literature

01/01/95

Every season several organizations who sell helmets to non-profits at discounted rates send us the information on the prices and helmet models they offer. This document is a compilation of information from several organizations, including Ride Safe, Shinn and Associates, American Safety Awareness Programs and others. BHSI does not recommend or endorse these organizations, but makes this information available for non-profits to evaluate.


BHSIDOC #539

10 Page(s)



Various,

Standards Comparisons

Various, including Snell and CPSC

01/01/95

A compilation of summary comparisons of various helmet standards. Additions will be made as they are received. Our own point-by-point standards comparison (BHSIDOC #185 - also available through Fax-on-Demand or our www server) is now over 30 pages long and is not a summary. These summaries are perhaps more easily digestible for those who do not need detail. We may eventually add one of our own to the collection.


BHSIDOC #540

5 Page(s)



Various,

French Language Materials on Helmets

Various, including Phil Graitcer, Canada's Min. of Transport, others

01/01/95

Various articles and pamphlets on helmets in the French language, many from Canada. They include Phil Graitcer's article "Pourquoi Porter un Casque" (Why Wear a Helmet), materials from the Canadian Government, a French magazine article, and pamphlets from the Hopital Charles LeMoyne in Quebec. Others will be added as they come in.


BHSIDOC #541

20 Page(s)



Various,

Helmet Campaign Materials

Various, including Harborview, Safe Kids, Snell.

01/01/95

We receive catalogs and price sheets from various organizations, mostly non-profits, who produce helmet campaign materials. This is a sampling of them, and is updated as new ones come in. The organizations include Harborview Injury and Prevention Center, the Safe Kids Campaign, Snell Foundation and others.


BHSIDOC #548

15 Page(s)



Victoria Road Traffic Authority,

Information on Bicycle Helmets

Victoria Road Traffic Authority, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.

01/01/83

Two page sheet on why buy a helmet, choosing one for construction, fit, color, etc and listing the Recommended models: Guardian, Rosebank Stackhat, Bell BMX-3, Bell Biker, Bell Tourlite, MSR Bicycle, Bell Mini-mite, Bell Mini-moto and Centurion 150, all of which it says meet AS 2063.


BHSIDOC #111

2 Page(s)



Victoria Road Traffic Authority,

Pamphlet - Bicycle Helmets Save Lives

Road Traffic Authority,801 Glenferrie Rd,Hawthorn 3122, Vic. Australia

/ /

One page (two sides) pamphlet folded in thirds with a cover, first panel titled "A Quick Guide to Helmet Selection" (where AS 2063-qualified helmets are listed), a section titled "Accidents Don't Only Happen on Highways," a section on "Choosing a Helmet" and a final section titled "The Australian Standard for Bicycle Helmets."


BHSIDOC #136

2 Page(s)



Victoria Road Traffic Authority,

Pamphlet - Use Your Head...Use a Helmet

Road Traffic Authority, Victoria, Australia (1987?)

/ /

An eight panel pamphlet printed in four colors on both sides of a legal-size sheet. Tension-building graphic on front shows a giant hammer falling on a bicycle helmet. About 50/50 text and graphics. Sections: The Problem, The Solution, Where do Bicycle Riders Have Accidents?, Points to Look for When Making Your Selection, Helmet Wear/Helmet Care, standards, Choosing a Helmet.


BHSIDOC #149

2 Page(s)



Victoria Road Traffic Authority,

Mandatory Bicycle Helmets: Regulatory Impact Statement

Victoria State roads agency, Australia

/ /

Vic Roads' statement of the impact of mandatory bicycle helmet laws in the State of Victoria, probably prepared in 1990. Expects the law to increase helmet use from 35% to 70%, reducing annual deaths by 4 and hospitalizations by 71. Concludes other alternatives (education, facilities construction) are too expensive. Says no additional resources required for enforcement, "which will be undertaken by police in their usual manner." Tabulates quantifiable and unquantifiable costs and benefits for both the helmet laws and the alternatives.


BHSIDOC #306

27 Page(s)



Victoria Road Traffic Authority,

Bicycle Helmet Usage Rates in Victoria (Australia)

Victoria State roads authority, Australia

01/11/88

Authored by Andrea Beel. Government efforts increased helmet use 1983--1988, when it reached 62% for primary school children, 13% for secondary school children, and 43% for adult commuters (in cites--country towns were 52%, 13% and 10%). Increases leveled off or began to decline in 1988. Female secondary students used helmets about half as much as males, and carried helmets rather than using them on 10% of their trips. Where schools required helmets, usage was 8 times greater. Recommends promotion to teenagers and recreational cyclists.


BHSIDOC #307

51 Page(s)



Victoria Road Traffic Authority,

Initial Effects of Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Wearing Legislation Draft Report

Victoria State roads authority, Australia

01/08/90

Authored by Glenn Sullivan. After passage of a mandatory helmet law, primary school usage increased from 65% to 94% and secondary school usage from 37% to 87%. Adult commuter usage increased from 44% to 89%. A more complete study was planned for March, 1991, in Australia's fall season. Concludes that the helmet legislation adopted in 1990 "has been successful."


BHSIDOC #308

18 Page(s)



Victoria Road Traffic Authority,

Bicycle Helmets: Because They Work (Pamphlet)

Victoria state road authority (Vic Roads), Australia

01/01/90

A slick four-color pamphlet covering The Problem, The Solution, standards (with a test rig graphic), Points to Look For, Wear and Care, Where do Bicycle Riders Have Accidents. Worth a look if you are designing a pamphlet. Our Printed on paper is unfortunately black and white, which detracts from the impact.


BHSIDOC #324

2 Page(s)



Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles,

Sell a Bike, Save a Life: A Bicycle Training Program for Retail Merchants and Their Employees

Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles

01/01/90

A program sponsored by VDOT to train department store sales people in bicycle safety and in selling safe bicycles, including helmets. Includes course materials, transparencies, tests, a video tape, evaluation forms. The course is Maggie Haley's impressive response to the problem of department stores selling unsafe bikes. It has been well received by store managers and won the Bicycle Action Award. The course is available from Maggie Haley, Traffic Safety Supervisor, VDOT, 3551 Buckner Rd., Virginia Beach, VA 23454, tel. (804) 363-3930.


BHSIDOC #319

27 Page(s)

Media: WITH VIDEO FROM MAGGIE HALEY, NOT BHSI.



Vulcan, et al,

Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Use: Experience in Victoria, Australia

World Journal of Surgery, 16, 389-397, 1992

12/01/92

Reports on helmet wearing rates in Victoria before and after legislation took effect there in 1990. Notes that wearing rates had already risen before the law was passed to 70% for primary school children, 20% for secondary students, and 40% for adults. The law followed a decade of intense helmet promotion, and was accompanied by other promotion programs. Wearing rates have now risen to 70 to 90% for most categories of cyclist. Meantime, the number of severe bicyclist casualties, which has been in decline for ten years as helmet use increased, has fallen further, as has the percentage of severely injured with head injuries and the number of bicyclists admitted to public hospitals. Ridership also declined somewhat, however. The authors concluded that fewer riders were suffering severe injuries, and of the ones injured, fewer had head injuries. This survey was based on early data.


BHSIDOC #497

0 Page(s)



Vyrnwy-Jones, Lanoue, Pritts,

SPH-4 U.S. Army Flight Helmet Performance, 1983-1987

U.S.Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, August, 1988

08/01/88

A study based on examination of 146 aircrew helmets with fiberglass shells and .5" EPS liners with a density of 4.5 pounds per cubic foot. Concluded that penetration tests are not useful in a standard for military helmets, and that the military needed a standard for helmet retention and stability.


BHSIDOC #233

65 Page(s)



WABA Staff,

Pamphlet - Thinking About Buying a Bicycle Helmet?

Washington Area Bicyclist Association

01/01/84

A pamphlet with less technical info than WABA's Consumer's Guide to Bicycle Helmets. Has a cute highwheeler cartoon on the cover and some general thoughts on why you need a helmet and how to pick one out.


BHSIDOC #137

2 Page(s)



Wachtel, Alan

Bicycle Helmet Bibliography

Personal paper.

10/01/82

Very well done annotated bibliography which traces the major themes of helmet testing and its various controversies, giving the major sources of information with full references. Done in 1982 but still very useful for background.


BHSIDOC #34

6 Page(s)



Wachtel, Alan

Untitled paper reviewing Skid Lid's helmet theory.

Alan Wachtel

03/01/82

A thoughtful review of the issues raised by Skid Lid concerning helmet design and testing in the period before the ANSI Z90.4 standard was adopted in 1984.


BHSIDOC #130

7 Page(s)



Walker, Michael B.

Compulsory Helmet Wearing in New South Wales (Australia)

Department of Psychology, University of Sidney, 1992(?)

01/01/92

After NSW's helmet law took effect, helmet wearing rates increased from a range of 10 to 40 percent to 98 percent for serious cyclists, 80 percent for commuters and 60 percent for recreational riders. Overall, usage rates in rural NSW rose to about 80%, while Sydney registered 75% and Melbourne 83%. There were variations by neighborhood. The authors had expected a higher commuter rate. No ridership change was detected, but seasonal data problems may have masked any changes.


BHSIDOC #447

4 Page(s)



Wall Street Journal,

Helmet Takes a Licking, Keeps on Ticking

Wall Street Journal, date?, 1990.

/ /

Reports on the Aria Sonics Tempest helmet, a Snell-certified all-foam design made of expanded PolyPropylene (EPP) rather than expanded PolyStyrene (EPS). Aria Sonics says EPP is good for multiple impacts. Snell says multiple impacts are not a problem. Bell says that EPP has to be 10% thicker to perform as well as EPS in an impact.


BHSIDOC #331

1 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

Bicycle Helmet Wearability Study

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, 1979.

01/01/79

WABA's 1979 publication of data gathered by its riding panel starting in 1974. Concentrates on wearability, since there was no laboratory test data available. Some generalities on protection, and 11 detailed wearability assessments.


BHSIDOC #71

12 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, May, 1983

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, DC

05/01/83

The first edition of the Helmet Update. Articles on WABA's continuing program, how to join the ANSI Z90 committee, requirement for helmets by Trexlertown Velodrome, more. Edited by Tom Balderston.


BHSIDOC #157

3 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, September, 1983

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, D.C.

09/01/83

The second Helmet Update. New test results on five helmets, the Arai, Bell V-1 Pro, Land Tool Company, OGK and Monarch Tour Guard. Articles on Bell's buckle problem, tests underway. Attachments: Michael Rosenberg's article on Skid Lid from California Bicyclist (now BHSIDOC #37), and Consumer's Guide to Bicycle Helmets. Edited by Tom Balderston.


BHSIDOC #158

8 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, November, 1983

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, D.C.

11/01/83

Third Helmet Update. Edged in black in memory of George Snively. Articles: Snively death, Bell Tourlite buckle recall, Bell Mark I, Canadian testing by Dr. Bishop (BHSIDOCS #6 and #74), departure of Tom Balderston. This and all further issues edited by Randy Swart.


BHSIDOC #159

4 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, April, 1984

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, DC

04/01/84

Fourth Helmet Update. Articles: ANSI standard approved, new Consumer's Guide, New York show, Bell Tourlite buckles with illustrations (not attached--now included with BHSIDOC #99 by Jim Fremont)


BHSIDOC #160

3 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, April, 1985

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, DC

04/01/85

Fifth Helmet Update. Articles: ANSI and Snell standards published, new Consumer's Guide, report on article in Bicycle Rider Magazine (now BHSIDOC #95 by Joe Minton), results of Dr. Hodgson's testing with NOCSAE headform.


BHSIDOC #161

5 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, December, 1985

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, DC

12/01/85

Sixth Helmet Update. Articles: Results of Professor Hurt's testing at USC, Bicycle Rider Magazine article, USCF requirement for helmets, John Williams' computer bulletin board (406) 549-1318. The various attachments are available as other BHSIDOCS.


BHSIDOC #162

3 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, July, 1986

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, DC

07/01/85

Seventh Helmet Update. Articles: new Consumer's Guide, New York Cycle Show, new articles in Bicycling Magazine, Bicycle Rider Magazine and the New York Times. Attachments from WABA's newsletter RIDE ON! still included, others available as other BHSIDOCS.


BHSIDOC #163

5 Page(s)



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, March, 1987

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, DC

03/01/87

Eighth WABA Helmet Update. Articles: New Bike Helmets Shown in New York, Giro and Echo--A Revolution?, Another Bell Buckle, More New Helmets Introduced, new Consumer's Guide.


BHSIDOC #164

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or disk.



Washington Area Bicyclist Association,

The WABA Helmet Update, March, 1988

Washington Area Bicyclist Association, Washington, DC

03/01/88

Ninth WABA Helmet Update. Articles: new Consumer's Guide, Need Samples of New Helmets, Still do not like the Bell "Aero" buckle, Need Reports of Shell-less Helmet Performance, WABA has moved.


BHSIDOC #165

2 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or disk.



Wasserman et al., Richard

Bicyclists, Helmets and Head Injuries: A Rider-Based Study of Helmet Use and Effectiveness

American Journal of Public Health, Vol 78, No. 9, September, 1988

09/01/88

Based on interviews with 516 riders in Burlington, Vermont in summer of 1984. Nineteen percent owned helmets, but only 8% had them on when interviewed. Helmet-wearers were better educated and used auto seat belts more. Four percent had hit their heads in a crash in the last 18 months, and helmet wearers were less likely to have been injured.


BHSIDOC #171

2 Page(s)



Watkins, Tom

Let the Bad Times Roll: The Biking Safety Lag

Medical Tribune, April 17, 1985

04/17/85

A good article about the state of helmet safety from the point of view of preventive medicine.


BHSIDOC #77

2 Page(s)



Watts, David

Try a Helmet on for Life, Dealer Tells Customers

Bicycle Business Journal, August, 1989

08/01/89

A letter to the editor with a three paragraph letter which Watts displays with his helmets. The letter to the customer gives his personal experience with helmets and a strong pro-helmet message. The letter to the editor notes that Watts sells helmets based on concern for the customer.


BHSIDOC #246

1 Page(s)



Watts, et al,

Survey of Bicycling Accidents in Boulder, Colorado

The Physician and Sportsmedicine, Vol 14, #3, March 1986.

03/01/86

A survey of 226 hospital emergency room patients. About half had been in an accident with a car. Only 33 had helmets, and some of the helmets were probably (in 1986) incapable of meeting the ANSI standard. Thirty riders (13.3%) had closed head injuries. Three of the 33 wearing some kind of helmet had a closed head injury, but none required hospitalization. Thirty-seven of the 182 riders with a hairnet or no helmet at all had closed head injures, six of them requiring admission to the hospital. Concludes that helmets are effective in reducing head injuries.


BHSIDOC #300

4 Page(s)



Weiss, Barry

Prevention of Bicycle-Related Head Injuries

American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol 2, No. 6, 1986.

01/01/86

A discussion of the epidemiology of bicyclists' head injuries. Reviews statistics, then discusses helmets and their potential to reduce injury. Uses the term "soft shelled helmets" to mean leather "hairnets" used by racers prior to 1986. Discusses helmet construction and concludes that helmets would reduce head injuries by an unspecified percentage. Forty-four references.


BHSIDOC #182

4 Page(s)



Weiss, Hank

Bicycle Injury: Epidemiology and Prevention

APHA presentation, November 20, 1985.

11/20/85

Presentation done during the American Public Health Association annual meeting in 1985. Includes summary, conclusions and copies of the presentation slides used for the talk. Probably published elsewhere since then but we do not have it. Covers injury statistics by age, sex, time of day and helmet presence or absence.


BHSIDOC #127

26 Page(s)



Weiss, MD, Barry D.

Bicycle-Related Head Injuries

Clinics in Sports Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 1, January, 1994

01/01/94

Covers epidemiology data, types of injuries and groups, prevention (through education and separation of motor vehicles and bicycles), helmets, interventions in physicians' offices, community-based programs, legislative interventions. Notes cycling 's benefits, but says it may account for 4 per cent of all hospital trauma admissions and that over 1 million riders seek some form of medical intervention for cycling injuries in the U.S. annually. Estimates the financial cost of bicycle injuries in the U.S. as more than $1 billion, and notes that in China they are the major cause of traumatic brain injury among all age groups. Has 49 references. Address reprint requests to: Barry D. Weiss, MD, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, 1450 North Cherry, Tucson, AZ 85719.


BHSIDOC #546

8 Page(s)

Media: Printed on paper or from Dr. Weiss.



Weller and Chandler,

Motorcycle Safety and Motorcycle Education: Past Research and Survey Efforts

JPP&M, Vol 8, 1989

01/01/89

Purports to analyze motorcycle helmet issues using marketing techniques. Summarizes past studies under four themes: the social burden of motorcyclists' injuries, motorcycle safety education, the economic impact of helmet laws, and helmet effectiveness. Summarizes arguments for and against motorcycle helmet effectiveness. Asks why other classes of people at risk such as auto drivers do not have mandatory helmet requirements, concludes on the basis of an Illinois program that safety education is a better way of reducing fatalities than helmet laws. Commits the same analytical errors pointed out in the work of others. Then reports on a study of perceptions of lawmakers, the public, and motorcyclists, concluding that the motorcyclists must know more about the subject than the others because they agree with the authors.


BHSIDOC #347

16 Page(s)



Which? Magazine Staff,

Keep Your Head: Protecting Yourself

Which? Magazine (UK), August, 1991

08/01/91

This consumer magazine assumed that any BSA-standard helmet was acceptable without further testing and tested 11 others, finding only 3 acceptable (Bell Quest, Nolan CY-1 and OGK SH-5000). Rejected were the Bell Image, Giro Prolight, Specialized Airforce 1, Aria Sonics Tempest, Rosebank Stackhat, Vetta Bambine, L'il Bell, and Brancale Bunny, none of them made in the UK. The first three were rejected for splitting on a "kerbstone" anvil, with no comment on how well they protected the headform or if the BSA-certified helmets had split during testing. This article caused a stir in the UK. We include critical comment from New Cyclist magazine and Cycle Touring and Campaigning.


BHSIDOC #371

8 Page(s)



William Blair and Company,

Bell Sports Corp. stock prospectus

Wm. Blair and Company, and Montgomery Securities

12/15/92

An old copy of a stock prospectus which reveals some information about Bell's corporate structure at that time. We also have a stockbroker's portfolio analysis from July of 1993 recommending buying the stock when it was $26 per share and removing it from the recommended list when it reached $36 per share two weeks later. On March 24, 1995, Bell's stock was trading at $13.50 per share, with a 52 week low of $12.25 and high of $37.75. (Bell's symbol on NSADAQ is BSPT. Quotes are available on the Internet fro m the Security APL Quote Server if you have web access at http://www.secapl.com: 83/cgi-bin/qs. Enter BSPT in the query form. We have a recent copy of this page on our www server.) The stock prospectus does not have current information, and we cannot Printed on paper it for you at any rate. This entry is a reminder to researchers that since Bell is a public company there is information on them available in the marketplace from stockbrokers and industry analysts. Following the merger now taking place with American Sports, the company claims 70 per cent of the total world market for bicycle helmets.


BHSIDOC #542

0 Page(s)

Media: From stockbrokers.



Williams, Alan F.

Factors in the Initiation of Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol.130, April,1976

04/01/76

Based on a study of 888 bicycle-motor vehicle accidents in Maryland, the author concludes that the cyclist is often at fault. Discusses season, hour of day, location, vehicle movements, age of cyclists.


BHSIDOC #116

8 Page(s)



Williams, John E.

Pamphlet - Bicycle Safety: What Every Parent Should Know

Bicycle Forum magazine pamphlet

01/01/81

Good pamphlet by John Williams, editor of Bicycle Forum magazine, with catchy graphics and well-done text. Has a Bailen ad at the end indicating that they paid for distribution. Requires permission to Printed on paper, so please obtain from Bicycle Forum, Box 4308, Missoula MT 59807, tel. (406) 721-1776.


BHSIDOC #51

4 Page(s)

Media: FROM BICYCLE FORUM, NOT BHSI.



Williams, Martin

Protective Performance of Bicyclist's Helmets in Accidents

Technisearch (Australia), Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.

11/01/89

Sixty four crashed helmets were compared with identical samples crashed in a lab. The lab achieved the same helmet damage with drops of .75 meters for 67% of the helmets and 1.5 meters for 90% of the helmets, but the remainder required a drop of more than 1.5 meters. The most severe corresponded to 2.4 meters. Scrape marks indicated that 65% of the impacts involved sliding on the impact surface. All major concussive injuries involved either loss of the helmet, collapse of the helmet due to a defect or impacts below the helmet's protection. All involved a collision with a motor vehicle and in all cases the rider was struck on the head more than once. "When a helmet functioned correctly and stayed on the rider's head, no major concussive injuries occurred.." The foam in the helmets was not too stiff, since low-severity impacts did not result in injuries even with a high-density liner. None of the six neck injuries involved sliding of the helmet on the impact surface, but the sample included only one softshell. Material defects occurred in about one third of the helmets, mostly in the EPS liner. All impact surfaces were flat. Sixty-three percent of the impacts occurred below the test line of the Australian standard (which is in turn below that of the US ANSI standard and the Snell Memorial Foundation standard), indicating that protection did not extend far enough down on the riders' heads. The helmets prevented g's from exceeding 200 in 90% of the cases, and all were below 400g. Recommends standards should raise drop heights to 2 meters, lower test lines, use stability tests. This study has important implications for standards-makers. The Aussies are ahead of us again.


BHSIDOC #376

38 Page(s)



Wilson, Callie

Bicyclists in Washington State: A Population at Risk

Unpublished paper, U. of Washington School of Nursing, March, 1987

03/01/87

Examines bicycle riders who are either a)newspaper carriers or b) adults who have lost their drivers license. Finds that their biggest risk factors are poor riding and intoxication. Recommends that helmets be promoted through insurance rate structure, requiring large deductibles for non-helmeted riders. Also recommends use of fashion to produce peer pressure to wear a helmet. Recommends safety training and a requirement that helmets be sold with bicycles. Calculates cyclist brain injuries expected in Washington State and cost of treating brain damaged adults. Annotated bibliography.


BHSIDOC #304

32 Page(s)



Wisconsin Department of Transportation,

Pamphlet - Be a Well-Dressed Cyclist--Wear a Helmet

Wisconsin Dept. of Transportation, Madison, WI (1986?)

/ /

Black and white printed pamphlet with six panels on both sides of a standard sheet. Cute graphics, general advice avoiding any discussion of brands. This pamphlet was produced as part of the helmet promotion campaign summarized in BHSIDOC #4 by Berchem.


BHSIDOC #145

2 Page(s)



Womack, Katie N.

Bicycle Helmet Observations in Six Texas Cities

Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M U., rpt to TX Dept Health

01/10/94

Measured helmet usage in six Texas communities to enable future evaluation of helmet campaigns being mounted in three of them. Discusses site selection and data collection procedures. Of the 1,485 cyclists observed, 9.8 percent wore helmets. Results varied by location, ranging from 22 percent in Austin to 3 percent in San Antonio. In the 5 to 14 year old group, 5.2 percent wore helmets, varying from 10.4 percent in Austin to 0.6 percent in San Antonio. Highest usage rates were in the 20 to 30 year old group, with few gender differences. Ethnically, almost all helmeted riders were anglo, with few blacks, hispanics or asians. Children were more likely to be wearing a helmet if riding with a group. Annual updates will show changes.


BHSIDOC #510

22 Page(s)



Wood, J. G.

An Investigation of the Relative Thermal Comfort of Bicycle Helmets

U. of Southampton paper.

05/01/86

Research by an undergraduate student supervised by Dr. Chris Morfey at the U. of Southampton on thermal comfort with various helmet designs. Bell financed it. Helmets tested: 3 Bells, Bailen, Kiwi, Brancale SP4, Rosebank Stackhat. Good as far as it goes. Concludes that ventilation depends on area and position of vents, with emphasis on front vents.


BHSIDOC #7

27 Page(s)



Zahradnik, Fred

Helmet Buyer's Guide

Bicycling Magazine, Vol XXX, No. 4, May, 1989.

05/01/89

Reports on Bicycling Magazine's innovative ventilation testing with an instrumented headform and a cooling fan. Has a list of helmets available on the U.S. market for 1989, including their ranking in the ventilation test and the standards their manufacturers claim they meet. There was no impact testing for the article. Reports that Bell had research done in the U.K. by BSI comparing the sliding resistance of Bell's soft shell and hard shell helmets, quoting Dean Fisher of Bell as saying "there was no appreciable difference between the two types on a simulated road surface." Call Bell for that study--we have never seen it.


BHSIDOC #176

6 Page(s)



Zahradnik, Fred

Helmet Buyer's Guide

Bicycling Magazine, May, 1990.

05/01/90

Reports on 1990 helmets including Bicycling's own ventilation ratings based on their testing. Leads off with "WARNING: FOAM-ONLY HELMETS CAN GRIP THE PAVEMENT ON IMPACT, THEREBY INCREASING THE RISK OF NECK INJURY WHEN COMPARED TO HARDSHELL MODELS." Quotes Voigt Hodgson as saying "foam-only helmets can be a hazard to the neck. I'd rather have my helmet slide than hang up." Other topics: the introduction of EPP, thin shells, reinforcement of EPS helmets to prevent shattering on impact, a list of manufacturers, and child helmets.


BHSIDOC #326

7 Page(s)



Zahradnik, Fred

Pro-tection: 59 New Helmets That'll Help You Ride Like A Professional

Bicycling Magazine, May, 1991

05/10/91

Bicycling Magazine's annual helmet review, with a listing of most helmets available on the US market and their ratings for coolness based on Bicycling Magazine lab testing. Notes trend to thinshells, lighter helmets, better ventilation (average rose from 2.5 to 3.1 on their 4.0 testing scale). Covers helmet types, fitting, child helmets, standards. Mentions again the research Bell said they had done by the British Standards Institute on sliding resistance "several years ago."


BHSIDOC #360

5 Page(s)



Zahradnik, Fred

A Better Bif Bucket

Bicycling Magazine, October, 1993

11/01/93

What Bicycling Magazine technical editor Zahradnik does not like about helmets: too few sizes, scratchy straps, fiddly adjustments, fussy buckles, skimpy coverage in superlight models. The author thinks the "lighter, cooler, better looking" trend has perhaps reached and surpassed its limits. Explains some elements of the Snell and ASTM standards. Urges readers to write to ASTM and Snell about standards and complain to dealers and manufacturers about limited sizes and unfriendly straps.


BHSIDOC #492

1 Page(s)



Zahradnik and Drake,

Fast Decisions (on Aero Components)

Bicycling Magazine, January/February, 1991

01/01/91

Analyzes aero components based on track testing. Rates bars, wheels, and (briefly) helmets, comparing their cost to the time reduction achieved on the track at 23 to 25 MPH. For those who can ride this fast, the Specialized Air Force II helmet was rated to save 50 seconds over a 40 km distance. (At the lower speeds most riders achieve, the savings would be less or nil.) Helmets compared are the Specialized, the Giro Aerohead and the Bell Image. No discussion of how the aero shape affects protection in a crash, where the "tail" might snag.


BHSIDOC #327

6 Page(s)



Zukowski, Stan

No-Fear Headgear

Bicycling Magazine, May, 1995

05/01/95

An unfortunate title for an article on 12 helmets designed for mountain biking. Outlines "unique" problems for dirt riders: fit, mud, water, branches, rear coverage. (Well, the mud may be unique.) Seven editors made personal choices, giving the Giro best visor ("in the universe"), the Specialized best rear gripper, and a Troy Lee Designs helmet the best coverage. The editors' choices overall were models from Specialized, Giro and Avenir.


BHSIDOC #584

4 Page(s)

Media:



Index to Bibliography



Aerodynamics

Kyle (#254), Kyle (#298), Roosa, Doug and Kimmage, Paul (#294), Swart (#253), Zahradnik and Drake (#327),

Anatomy


Beier, Schuck, Shuller, Spann (#238), Boodman and Rovner (#219), Bradtmiller, et al (#511), Burke (#54), Burke, Ed and Fritschner (#139), Ewing and Thomas (#249), Gennarelli and Thibault (#183), Gisolfi (#33), Gurdjian, Roberts and Thomas (#184), Hodgson (#15), Kraus et al. (#8), Lane (#437), Low and Stalnaker (#269), Mohan, Bowman, Snyder, Foust (#436), Morfey (#202), Morfey (#251), Newman (#59), Newman (#60), Newman (#179), Rojanavanich, Stalnaker (#216), Rojanavanich, Stalnaker (#217), Saczalski (#107), Schneider, Lehman, Pflug (#383), Snively and Chichester (#90), Stalnaker, Fogle (#218), Stalnaker, Lin, Guenther (#214), Stalnaker, Low, Lin (#215),

Australia


Australian Institute of Health & Welfare (#463), Australian Standards Association (SAA) (#96), Australian Standards Association (SAA) (#188), Cameron, Heiman, Neiger (#460), Cameron, M.H. & Heiman, L. (#446), Elliott (#20), Gillies (#16), Harland (#17), Kuczynski & Ziegler (#309), Leister, Nassau, Wise (#358), Mathieson (#75), Mathieson (#189), Morgan, Peberdy, Rogerson (#406), Parker (#122), Piechota (#471), Pravetz (#474), Scott, Ian and Kreisfeld, Renate (#478), Shepherd (#432), Shepherd (#527), Technisearch (#18), Thomas, Steven et al (#489), Various (#321), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#111), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#136), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#149), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#306), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#307), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#308), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#324), Vulcan, et al (#497), Walker (#447), Williams (#376),

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute


Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#486), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#503), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#514), Various (#220), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#71), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#157), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#158), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#159), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#160), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#161), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#162), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#163), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#164), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#165),

Bibliographies

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#486), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#503), Henderson (#586), Tracy (#135), Wachtel (#34),

Canada


British Columbia Medical Association (#399), Canadian Standards Association (#62), Canadian Standards Association (#66), Canadian Standards Association (#354), Coffman (#112), Cushman, James, Waclawik, Runyan (#401), Dixon, Jim and Focus Staff (#325), Fournier and Smith (#322), General Hospital of Edmonton (Grey Nuns) (#389), Hibler (#39), Jarvis (#278), Jenkins (#373), Jenkins (#387), Newman (#179), Newman (#92), Ontario Legislative Assembly (#555), Ottawa-Carlton Cyclist (#412), Parkin, et al (#530), Toronto City Cycling Committee (#405), Toronto City Cycling Committee (#479), University of Alberta Hospitals (#404), Various (#321),
br>

Children's Helmets


AMC Media (#550), AMC Media Corporation (#567), Allgemeiner Deutscher Auto Club (#334), American Academy of Pediatrics (#316), American Academy of Pediatrics (#442), Bell and Drakenberg (#260), Bell and Drakenberg (#261), Bicycle Federation (#181), Bicycling Association of British Columbia (#142), Bicycling Magazine Staff (#272), Blomberg and Bishop (#388), Boyle (#151), Bradtmiller, et al (#511), Brown (#419), Brown (#197), Cascade Bicycle Club (#281), Cote, et al (#496), Cushman, James, Waclawik, Runyan (#401), D.C. Department of Public Works (#155), Dannenberg and Vernick (#462), Dannenberg, Gielen, Beilenson, et al (#456), Dean Medical Center (#257), DiGuiseppi et al (#268), Eichelberger and Riggenbach (#210), Ekman and Welander (#370), Graitcer et al (#559), Harborview Injury Prevention Center (#207), Hatziandreu et al (#566), Head First Publications (#553), Head Smart Coalition (#150), Howland, et al (#262), Jagger (#205), Jones (#448), Kiberg (#256), Kimmel and Nagel (#315), Lane (#437), League of American Wheelmen (#429), Lee (#569), London & District Academy of Medicine (#537), Maunder (#211), Mohan, Bowman, Snyder, Foust (#436), Oregon Bike Helmet Campaign (#551), Otis et al (#445), Outdoor Empire Publishing Company (#484), Overstreet (#243), Pro Bike News Staff (#348), Ride Safe (#369), Ride Safe (#453), Rivara and Young (#505), Rivara, Thompson et al (#504), Rogers, Bergman, Rivara (#372), Royal Berkshire & Battle Hospitals NHS Trust (#364), Ruch-Ross and O'Connor (#495), Ruddy and Selbst (#394), Sachs (#108), Sacks, Holmgreen, Smith, Sosin (#416), Safe Kids (#353), Safe Kids/Scholastic, Inc. (#303), Sargent (#109), Savage (#502), Schneider, Lehman, Pflug (#383), Searcy (#424), Selbst, et al (#301), Shinn and Associates (#480), Slatis (#418), Sorensen (#195), Squires, Sally and Lawrence G. Prouix (#578), Superstar Comics (#464), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#560), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#561), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#568), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#582), Various (#203), Various (#204),

Conspicuity


ASTM Standardization News Staff (#543), Bicycle Dealer Showcase (#434), League of American Bicyclists (#552), Olson (#72), Owens, D. Alfred and Sivak, Michael (#563),

Consumer Information


Austin (#110), Balderston (#2), Bell (#338), Berger (#276), Bicycle Dealer Showcase and Cyclist Magazine (#280), Bicycle Federation (#433), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#1), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#3), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#166), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#168), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#177), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#291), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#339), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#362), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#514), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#557), Bicycle Institute of Victoria (#148), Bike World Staff (#106), Bishop (#6), Bishop (#74), Blomberg (#73), Boyce (#225), Buell (#103), Burke (#44), Burke (#54), Burke (#198), Burke, Ed and Fritschner (#139), Carter (#131), Caton and Preston (#364), Changing Times staff (#134), Coffman (#112), Consumer Reports (#335), Consumer Reports (#526), Consumer's Digest (#349), Cyclist Magazine Staff (#84), Cyclist Magazine Staff (#123), Cyclist Magazine Staff (#132), Cyclist Magazine Staff (#270), D'Ambrosio (#88), Dalluge (#36), DeMoss (#528), Derven (#89), Dimond (#499), Dimond (#519), Dunham (#83), Ferguson (#229), Fremont (#99), Fritz, Blumenthal, Smutko (#365), Gisolfi (#33), Glaskin (#105), Greater Dallas Bicyclists (#332), Greer (#208), Harland (#17), Hibler (#39), Hirsch (#263), Hodgson (#310), Hodgson (#357), Howells (#241), International Bicycle Fund (#143), Jagger (#205), Kukula (#97), Kyle (#285), Kyle (#298), Legwold (#277), MacFadden (#45), Mathew (#236), Meier (#323), Minton (#95), Oxford (U.K.) City Engineer (#221), Pitts (#529), RadMarkt (#375), RoSPA (U.K.) (#154), Rodale Press (#40), Sage, Cairns, Koelmeyer, Smeeton (#234), Salomon (#32), Self Magazine Staff (#30), Simons (#12), Sinclair (#35), Skrabak (#94), Snell Memorial Foundation (#359), Spolander (#507), Stutts, Williamson,Sheldon (#302), Sutton (#393), Swart (#70), Swart (#86), Swart (#87), Swart (#100), Swart (#101), Swart (#170), Swart (#253), Swart (#343), Technisearch (#18), Triathlon Times Staff (#292), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#582), UCLA School of Public Health (#425), USA Today Staff (#38), Ulrich (#55), Various (#305), Various (#220), Various (#336), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#111), Wachtel (#130), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#71), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#157), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#158), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#159), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#160), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#162), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#163), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#164), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#165), Watkins (#77), Which? Magazine Staff (#371), Zahradnik (#176), Zahradnik (#326), Zahradnik (#360), Zahradnik (#492), Zukowski (#584),

Crash Reports



Fisher, Dean and Terry Stern (#554), Hurt and Thom (#167), Levine (#459), Smith, Tees, Thom, Hurt (#488), Various (#305),

Data on Helmet Tests



Andersson et al (#523), Balderston (#2), Beier, Schuck, Shuller, Spann (#238), Bell and Drakenberg (#260), Bike World Staff (#106), Bishop (#64), Bishop (#6), Bishop (#74), Burns (#102), Caton and Preston (#364), Consumer Reports (#335), Consumer Reports (#526), Corner (#52), Fremont (#99), Gillies (#16), Glaskin (#105), Gordon (#50), Hibler (#39), Hurt (#53), Hurt and Thom (#167), Jarvis (#153), Jarvis (#397), Kyle (#254), Kyle (#298), Minton (#95), Morfey (#194), Ottawa-Carlton Cyclist (#412), Rolsten & Haley (#114), Rosenberg (#37), Safety Equipment Institute (#544), Simons (#12), Sinclair (#35), Slobodnik (#232), Snell Memorial Foundation (#81), Snell Memorial Foundation (#82), Swart (#70), Technisearch (#18), Triathlon Times Staff (#292),(#465), Vyrnwy-Jones, Lanoue, Pritts (#233), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#71), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#158), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#159), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#161), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#162), Which? Magazine Staff (#371), Zahradnik (#176), Zahradnik (#326), Zahradnik (#360), Zahradnik and Drake (#327),

Design of Helmets



Andersson et al (#523), Armijo (#501), Australian Cyclist (#441), Bell Helmets (#385), Bicycle Guide (#391), Bradtmiller, et al (#511), Brunt, Craig, Tait (#227), Burns (#102), Compressed Air Magazine (#515), Corner (#52), Dalluge (#36), Derven (#89), Fisher, Dean and Terry Stern (#554), Gurdjian, Roberts and Thomas (#184), Kostner, Stocker (#288), Kyle (#285), Lane (#437), Lloyd (#449), McElhaney, Roberts, Stalnaker (#213), Mills (#407), Mills (#408), Mills and Gilchrist (#287), Morfey (#69), Rolsten & Haley (#114), Rolsten, R. Fred and Haley (#180), Sachs (#108), Slatis (#418), Slobodnik (#232), Smith, Tees, Thom, Hurt (#488), Smith, Terry and James Newman (#63), Snively (#61), Spolander (#507), Swart (#100), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#382), U.S. Patent Office (#41), (#465), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#164), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#165), Williams (#376), Wood (#7), Zahradnik (#492),

Education on Helmet Use



AMC Media Corporation (#567), Abbott (#469), Acton, et al (#575), American Academy of Pediatrics (#468), Carlson Gielen et al (#532), Dannenberg, Gielen, Beilenson, et al (#456), Lee (#569), Levy (#498), London & District Academy of Medicine (#537), Outdoor Empire Publishing Company (#484), Rivara, Thompson et al (#504), Ruch-Ross and O'Connor (#495), Savage (#502), Shinn and Associates (#480), Smith, Novenske, Thrush, Lynch (#472), Squires, Sally and Lawrence G. Prouix (#578), Superstar Comics (#464),

Epidemiology: Studies of Groups of Injured



Allison (#476), Bell and Drakenberg (#260), Belongia, Weiss, Bowman, et al (#337), Fife (#79), Kraus et al. (#8), Kroon, Bunketorp, Romanus (#286), Kuczynski & Ziegler (#309), Mathieson (#75), Morfey (#68), Morfey (#191), New York Office of Public Health (#98), Oklahoma State Department of Health (#461), Otte, Appel, Suren (#265), Otte, Jessl, Suren (#267), Owens, D. Alfred and Sivak, Michael (#563), Rivara and Young (#505), Rivara, Thompson et al (#504), Rodgers (#490), Ruderman (#42), Sacks, Holmgreen, Smith, Sosin (#416), Sage, Cairns, Koelmeyer, Smeeton (#234), Sargent (#109), Searcy (#424), Selbst, et al (#301), Stutts, Williamson,Sheldon (#302), Thomas, Steven et al (#489), Thompson and Rivara (#318), Thompson, Rivara & Thompson (#190), Thompson, Rivara & Wolf (#313), Thompson, et al (#548), Vulcan, et al (#497), Wasserman et al. (#171), Watkins (#77), Watts, et al (#300), Weiss (#182), Weiss (#127), Weiss, MD (#546), Williams (#116), Wilson (#304),

Fit of helmets



Ride Safe (#453),

Government



ASTM F-08 Committee Task Force (#512), Beyers (#368), Bicycle Forum/Pro Bike News (#247), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#224), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#525), Eichelberger and Riggenbach (#210), Ekman and Welander (#370), Fise (#174), French Commission de la Securite des (#579), Frothingham (#581), Graitcer (#420), Graitcer (#421), Howard County, Maryland (#312), Jenkins (#387), Krivda (#571), Levy (#498), Maung (#230), Metzenbaum, Bryan, Danforth (#467), Montgomery County (MD) Council (#361), New York Governor's Bicycle Advisory Council (#244), Pennsylvania State Government (#414), Petty (#428), Petty (#76), Petty (#367), Price (#422), Pro Bike News Staff (#240), Pro Bike News Staff (#297), Rodgers (#490), Shepherd (#527), U.S. Centers for Disease Control (#506), U.S. Centers for Disease Control (#580), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#379), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#524), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#534), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#560), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#561), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#362), U.S. Department of Transportation (#271), U.S. Department of Transportation (#222),

International -- i.e. outside U.S, Australia or Canada



Allgemeiner Deutscher Auto Club (#334), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#185), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#451), Brain Injury Research Center (#585), British Standards Institution (#22), British Standards Institution (#23), CEN - European Norms Center (#363), Cellesche Zeitung (#587), Colyer, Hallam, Hui, Lewis, Morfey (#192), Colyer, Hallam, Hui, Lewis, Thorpe (#201), Commission de Securite des Consommateurs (#572), Cyclists' Touring Club (UK) (#169), Cyclists' Touring Club (UK) (#344), Deutsches Institut fur Normung (#374), Dimond (#499), Dimond (#519), European Committee for Standardization - CEN (#494), European Cyclists' Federation (#426), French Commission de la Securite des (#579), French Standards Association (AFNOR) (#235), Glaskin (#105), Graitcer (#588), Graitcer (#420), Graitcer (#421), Guinness and Wilcockson (#346), Hillman (#518), Japanese Standards Association (#538), Jarvis (#400), Kiberg (#256), Lancet staff (#152), Litt, Le Roch, Porte (#392), Mathew (#236), Maung (#230), Morfey (#68), Morfey (#69), Morfey (#191), Morfey (#193), Morfey (#194), Nolen (#509), Otte, Appel, Suren (#265), Oxford (U.K.) City Engineer (#221), RadMarkt (#375), RoSPA (U.K.) (#154), Royal Berkshire & Battle Hospitals NHS Trust (#364), SWOV - Netherlands (#522), Slatis (#418), Spolander (#507), Sutcliffe (#345), Swedish Board for Consumer Policies (#186), Swedish Nat'l Road and Traffic Res. Inst. (#508), Various (#541), Which? Magazine Staff (#371),

Lawsuits



Bicycle Retailer & Industry News Staff (#482), Bowles (#435), Graham (#320), Greater Dallas Bicyclists (#332), Haederle (#481), Howard County, Maryland (#312), O'Grady (#483), Petty (#428), Pro Bike News Staff (#115), Sutcliffe (#345), U.S. Centers for Disease Control (#506),

Manufacturers



Australian Cyclist, Bell Helmets (#385), Bell Sports, Inc. (#440), Bicycle Dealer Showcase Staff (#290), Bicycle Dealer Showcase and Cyclist Magazine (#280), Bicycle Guide (#391), Bicycle Guide Staff (#231), Bicycle Guide staff (#128), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#451), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#535), Bicycle Retailer & Industry News Staff (#482), Bicycle Retailer and Industry News Staff (#536), Bowles (#435), Brown (#197), Cameron, M.H. & Heiman, L. (#446), Davis (#454), Derven (#264), European Cyclists' Federation (#426), Frothingham (#500), Garneau (#386), Haederle (#481), Jarvis (#278), Jarvis (#293), Jarvis (#295), Jarvis (#400), Jarvis (#430), Jarvis (#533), Jarvis, Walt and Piechota, Ron (#477), O'Grady (#483), Palo Alto Bicycle Association Staff (#121), Piechota (#471), Pitts (#200), Rieger (#470), Rodriguez (#93), Rosenberg (#37), Shepherd (#432), Specialized Bicycles (#390), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#381), Vulcan, et al (#497), Walker (#447), Wall Street Journal (#331), William Blair and Company (#542),

Market



Armijo (#501), Bicycle Guide Staff (#231), Bicycle Guide staff (#128), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#417), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#557), Bicycle Retailer and Industry News Staff (#536), Brown (#197), Fritz, Blumenthal, Smutko (#365), Frothingham (#500), Jarvis (#295), Jarvis (#397), Jarvis (#400), Jarvis (#430), Jarvis, Walt and Piechota, Ron (#477), Pitts (#200), Pitts (#529), Rodriguez (#93), Specialized Bicycles (#390), Swart (#86), Swart (#87), Thompson (#427), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#380), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#381), Various (#539), Watts (#246),

Materials



Bicycle Guide (#391), Dalluge (#36), DeMoss (#528), Dreger (#199), Hodgson (#13), Jarvis (#153), Lloyd (#449), Mills (#408), Swart (#100), Wall Street Journal (#331),

Mandatory Helmets



Abbott (#469), Australian Institute of Health & Welfare (#463), Bicycle Federation of Washington (#328), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#352), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#513), Bleyer (#279), British Columbia Medical Association (#399), Cameron, Heiman, Neiger (#460), Cellesche Zeitung (#587), Commission de Securite des Consommateurs (#572), Cote, et al (#496), Dannenberg and Vernick (#462), Dannenberg, Gielen, Beilenson, et al (#456), Demes (#423), Earnest (#212), Eichelberger and Riggenbach (#210), Ferguson (#229), Graham (#320), Greenberg (#473), Hatziandreu et al (#566), Henderson (#586), Hillman (#518), Howard County, Maryland (#312), Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (#398), Jenkins (#373), Kim et al (#520), League of American Wheelmen (#317), Leister, Nassau, Wise (#358), Levy (#498), Litt, Le Roch, Porte (#392), Montgomery County (MD) Council (#361), Morgan, Peberdy, Rogerson (#406), New York Governor's Bicycle Advisory Council (#244), Ontario Legislative Assembly (#555), Parker (#122), Pena (#443), Pennsylvania State Government (#414), Pravetz (#474), Price (#422), Pro Bike News Staff (#115), Pro Bike News Staff (#240), Rieger (#470), Safe Kids (#353), Safe Kids Campaign (#573), Scott, Ian and Kreisfeld, Renate (#478), Shepherd (#527), Siegel (#239), Sosin, Sacks and Holmgreen (#314), Sunderland and Wessenberg, T.A. (#120), Sutcliffe (#345), Sutton (#393), Swart (#170), Toronto City Cycling Committee (#479), Various (#321), Various (#341), Various (#431), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#306), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#307), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#308), Weller and Chandler (#347),

Motorcycle Helmets



Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (#330), Bowles (#435), Gordon (#50), Graham (#320), Grudens (#284), Hurt (#53), Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (#398), Mills and Gilchrist (#287), Newman (#92), Olson (#72), Otte, Jessl, Suren (#267), Snell Memorial Foundation (#27), Snell Memorial Foundation (#209), Sosin, Sacks and Holmgreen (#314), U.S. Department of Transportation (#9), Ulrich (#55), Weller and Chandler (#347),

Pamphlets



AMC Media Corporation (#567), American Academy of Pediatrics (#442), American Academy of Pediatrics (#468), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#1), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#417), Bicycle Institute of Victoria (#148), Bicycling Association of British Columbia (#141), Bicycling Association of British Columbia (#142), Bikecentennial Staff (#396), Brain Injury Research Center (#585), Cascade Bicycle Club (#281), Cornell Cooperative Extension (#146), Crowley Foods, Inc. (#384), D.C. Department of Public Works (#155), Dean Medical Center (#257), General Hospital of Edmonton (Grey Nuns) (#389), Harborview Injury Prevention Center (#156), Harborview Injury Prevention Center (#250), Head Smart Coalition (#150), International Bicycle Fund (#143), League of American Wheelmen (#429), Metz (#147), National Bicycle Education Consortium (#138), New York Governor's Traffic Safety Committee (#242), Outdoor Empire Publishing Company (#283), Outdoor Empire Publishing Company (#144), Royal Berkshire & Battle Hospitals NHS Trust (#364), Shinn and Associates (#480), Snell Memorial Foundation (#359), Superstar Comics (#464), Toronto City Cycling Committee (#405), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#568), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#136), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#149), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#324), WABA Staff (#137), Williams (#51), Wisconsin Department of Transportation (#145),

Promotion of Helmets



AMC Media (#550), American Academy of Pediatrics (#316), American Academy of Pediatrics (#442), American Academy of Pediatrics (#468), Australian Institute of Health & Welfare (#463), Barrett (#410), Bell Sports, Inc. (#440), Bell and Drakenberg (#261), Berchem (#4), Berchem (#5), Berger (#276), Bicycle Federation (#181), Bicycle Federation (#433), Bicycle Forum (#85), Bicycle Forum Staff (#119), Bicycle Forum/Pro Bike News (#247), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#1), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#3), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#166), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#177), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#255), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#258), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#340), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#362), Bicycle Institute of Victoria (#148), Bicycle USA Staff (#289), Bicycle USA staff (#124), Bicycling Association of British Columbia (#141), Bicycling Association of British Columbia (#142), Bicycling Magazine Staff (#272), Bicycling Magazine Staff (#245), Bike World Staff (#106), Bikecentennial Staff (#78), Bikecentennial Staff (#396), Bishop (#74), Bleyer (#279), Blomberg and Bishop (#388), Boyle (#151), Brown (#419), Burke (#198), Carlson Gielen et al (#532), Cascade Bicycle Club (#281), Changing Times staff (#134), Colyer, Hallam, Hui, Lewis, Morfey (#192), Colyer, Hallam, Hui, Lewis, Thorpe (#201), Consumer Reports (#335), Consumer's Digest (#349), Cornell Cooperative Extension (#146), Coron (#516), Crowley Foods, Inc. (#384), Cushman, James, Waclawik, Runyan (#401), Cyclists' Touring Club (UK) (#169), Cyclists' Touring Club (UK) (#344), Dannenberg, et al (#531), Dean Medical Center (#257), DiGuiseppi et al (#268), Dorsch (#67), Dunham (#83), Earnest (#212), Eau Claire Police Department (#556), Ekman and Welander (#370), Elliott (#20), Forester (#252), French Commission de la Securite des (#579), Garneau (#386), General Hospital of Edmonton (Grey Nuns) (#389), Gillies (#16), Graitcer (#588), Graitcer (#420), Graitcer (#421), Graitcer et al (#559), Guinness and Wilcockson (#346), Harborview Injury Prevention Center (#207), Harborview Injury Prevention Center (#156), Harborview Injury Prevention Center (#250), Harrisburg (PA) Bicycle Club (#282), Hatziandreu et al (#566), Head First Publications (#553), Head Smart Coalition (#150), Hillman (#518), Hirsch (#263), Howland, et al (#262), Jarvis (#295), Jarvis (#533), Jones (#448), Jones (#342), Kiberg (#256), Kim et al (#520), Kimmel and Nagel (#315), Kroon, Bunketorp, Romanus (#286), Kuczynski & Ziegler (#309), Lancet staff (#152), League of American Wheelmen (#350), Lee (#569), Legwold (#277), Leister, Nassau, Wise (#358), London & District Academy of Medicine (#537), Mathew (#236), Mathieson (#189), Maunder (#211), Metz (#147), Metzenbaum, Bryan, Danforth (#467), Mills (#407), Morfey (#193), Morfey (#194), National Bicycle Education Consortium (#138), National Head Injury Foundation (#226), National Student Nurses Association (#223), New Jersey Head Injury Foundation (#415), New York Department of Health (#366), New York Governor's Bicycle Advisory Council (#244), New York Governor's Traffic Safety Committee (#242), New York Office of Public Health (#98), Newman (#92), Nolen (#509), North Carolina Department of Transportation (#351), North Carolina Government (#275), Oregon Bike Helmet Campaign (#551), Otis et al (#445), Outdoor Empire Publishing Company (#283), Outdoor Empire Publishing Company (#144), Overstreet (#243), Oxford (U.K.) City Engineer (#221), Palo Alto Times-Tribune (#402), Parkin, et al (#530), Pennsylvania Bike Federation (#403), Petty (#76), Price (#422), Pro Bike News Staff (#117), Pro Bike News Staff (#297), Pro Bike News Staff (#348), Ride Safe (#369), Ride Safe (#453), RoSPA (U.K.) (#154), Rodale Press (#40), Rogers, Bergman, Rivara (#372), Ruch-Ross and O'Connor (#495), SWOV - Netherlands (#522), Savage (#502), Searcy (#424), Sorensen (#195), Specialized Bicycles (#390), Squires, Sally and Lawrence G. Prouix (#578), Swedish Nat'l Road and Traffic Res. Inst. (#508), Thompson and Rivara (#318), Thompson, Rivara & Thompson (#190), Thompson, Rivara & Wolf (#313), Thompson, et al (#548), Toronto City Cycling Committee (#405), Tracy (#455), U.S. Centers for Disease Control (#506), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#568), U.S. Department of Transportation (#271), U.S. Department of Transportation (#222), UCLA School of Public Health (#425), USA Today Staff (#38), University of Alberta Hospitals (#404), Various (#305), Various (#203), Various (#220), Various (#336), Various (#413), Various (#539), Various (#541), Various (#548), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#149), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#306), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#307), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#324), Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (#319), Williams (#51), Wilson (#304), Wisconsin Department of Transportation (#145), Womack (#510),

Racing Helmets



Armijo (#501), Bicycle USA staff (#124), British Columbia Medical Association (#399), Burke, Ed and Fritschner (#139), Earnest (#212), Garneau (#386), Guinness and Wilcockson (#346), Kyle (#254), Legwold (#277), Litt, Le Roch, Porte (#392), Roosa, Doug and Kimmage, Paul (#294), Sunderland and Wessenberg, T.A. (#120),

Retention



Andersson, Larsson, Sandberg (#487),

Safety, General



Acton, et al (#575), Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (#330), Bicycle Forum Staff (#119), Blomberg (#73), Compressed Air Magazine (#515), Cross (#125), D.C. Department of Transportation (#126), D.C. Department of Transportation (#118), Dannenberg and Vernick (#462), Davis (#454), Dunham (#83), Ellis, et al (#545), Forester (#252), Hurt (#53), Kimmel and Nagel (#315), Kraus et al. (#8), Mathieson (#75), Maung (#230), Morfey (#251), New Jersey Head Injury Foundation (#415), Oklahoma State Department of Health (#461), Olson (#72), Otte, Appel, Suren (#265), Overstreet (#46), Petty (#76), Petty (#367), Ruddy and Selbst (#394), Swedish Nat'l Road and Traffic Res. Inst. (#508), U.S. Department of Transportation - NHTSA (#576), U.S. Dept of Transportation - NHTSA (#565), Various (#204), Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (#319), Watkins (#77),

Sliding Resistance



Andersson et al (#523), Bell (#338), Bicycle Dealer Showcase (#434), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#224), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#339), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#352), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#356), Hodgson (#310), Hodgson (#357), Swart (#343), Zahradnik (#176), Zahradnik (#326), Zahradnik (#360),

Statistics



Acton, et al (#575), Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (#330), Baker, et al (#457), Baker, et al (#458), Belongia, Weiss, Bowman, et al (#337), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#514), Boyle (#151), Cameron, Heiman, Neiger (#460), Cellesche Zeitung (#587), Colyer, Hallam, Hui, Lewis, Morfey (#192), Cote, et al (#496), D.C. Department of Transportation (#126), Dannenberg, et al (#531), DiGuiseppi et al (#268), Dorsch (#67), Eau Claire Police Department (#556), Farrer (#438), Fife (#79), Fisher (#444), Fisher (#491), Henderson (#586), Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (#398), Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (#450), Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (#574), Kroon, Bunketorp, Romanus (#286), Morfey (#68), Morfey (#191), Morgan, Peberdy, Rogerson (#406), National Adolescent Student Health Survey (#299), National Head Injury Foundation (#226), New York Office of Public Health (#98), New York State (#395), Nolen (#509), North Carolina Department of Transportation (#351), Oklahoma State Department of Health (#461), Owens, D. Alfred and Sivak, Michael (#563), Petty (#367), Pitts (#200), Pro Bike News Staff (#348), Pro Bike News Staff (#248), Protective Headgear Research Facility (#56), Rodgers (#490), Rogers, Bergman, Rivara (#372), Ruderman (#42), Sacks, Holmgreen, Smith, Sosin (#416), Sage, Cairns, Koelmeyer, Smeeton (#234), Sargent (#109), Selbst, et al (#301), Shepherd (#432), Sosin, Sacks and Holmgreen (#314), Stutts, Williamson,Sheldon (#302), Swart (#170), Thomas, Steven et al (#489), Thompson (#427), Thompson and Rivara (#318), Thompson, Rivara & Thompson (#190), Thompson, Rivara & Wolf (#313), Thompson, et al (#548), Tracy (#455), U.S. Centers for Disease Control (#580), U.S. Department of Transportation - NHTSA (#576), U.S. Dept of Transportation - NHTSA (#565), Various (#329), Victoria Road Traffic Authority (#308), Walker (#447), Wasserman et al. (#171), Watts, et al (#300), Weiss (#182), Weiss (#127), Weiss, MD (#546), Williams (#116), Williams (#376), Wilson (#304), Womack (#510),

Standards



ASTM F-08 Committee Task Force (#512), ASTM Standardization News Staff (#543), American National Standards Institute (#31), American National Standards Institute (#187), American Society for Testing and Materials (#493), Andersson, Larsson, Sandberg (#487), Australian Standards Association (SAA) (#96), Australian Standards Association (SAA) (#188), Becker (#570), Bell (#338), Bell Helmets Staff - L.R.L. (#57), Beyers (#368), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#166), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#185), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#224), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#255), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#291), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#339), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#340), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#417), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#451), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#486), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#503), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#525), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#549), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#557), Bikecentennial Staff (#228), Bishop (#64), Bishop (#65), Boyce (#225), British Standards Institution (#22), British Standards Institution (#23), Buell (#103), Burke (#44), CEN - European Norms Center (#363), Canadian Standards Association (#62), Canadian Standards Association (#66), Canadian Standards Association (#354), Caton and Preston (#364), Chichester (#113), Coffman (#112), Commission de Securite des Consommateurs (#572), Cycle Industry News Staff (#133), Cyclist Magazine Staff (#84), Deutsches Institut fur Normung (#374), Dixon, Jim and Focus Staff (#325), Dorsch (#67), European Committee for Standardization - CEN (#494), Fise (#174), Fisher (#491), Fisher (#58), Fisher (#273), Fisher (#296), Fisher, Dean and Terry Stern (#554), Fournier and Smith (#322), French Standards Association (AFNOR) (#235), Frothingham (#466), Frothingham (#581), Gleason, Patricia and O'Gorman, Robert (#576), Harland (#17), Henderson (#175), Henderson (#24), Hirsch (#263), Hodgson (#14), Howells (#241), Hurt and Thom (#167), Irving (#178), Japanese Standards Association (#538), Jenkins (#387), Johnson & Knapp (#10), Johnson & Knapp (#11), Krivda (#571), Kroll (#19), League of American Bicyclists (#552), Long, Dowdell & Griffiths (#274), McElhaney, Roberts, Stalnaker (#213), Meier (#323), Metzenbaum, Bryan, Danforth (#467), Mills (#407), Mills (#408), Minton (#95), Morfey (#69), Ottawa-Carlton Cyclist (#412), Otte, Jessl, Suren (#267), Palo Alto Bicycle Association Staff (#121), Rivara and Young (#505), Rolsten, R. Fred and Haley (#180), Saczalski (#107), Safety Equipment Institute (#544), Simons (#12), Skrabak (#94), Slobodnik (#232), Smith, Tees, Thom, Hurt (#488), Smith, Terry and James Newman (#63), Snell Memorial Foundation (#25), Snell Memorial Foundation (#26), Snell Memorial Foundation (#27), Snell Memorial Foundation (#28), Snell Memorial Foundation (#29), Snell Memorial Foundation (#80), Snell Memorial Foundation (#81), Snell Memorial Foundation (#82), Snell Memorial Foundation (#196), Snell Memorial Foundation (#206), Snell Memorial Foundation (#209), Snell Memorial Foundation (#266), Snell Memorial Foundation (#311), Snell Memorial Foundation (#355), Snell Memorial Foundation (#359), Snell Memorial Foundation (#485), Snively (#61), Snively (#104), Snively (#129), Snively and Chichester (#90), Snively and Chichester (#91), Swart (#521), Swart (#583), Swedish Board for Consumer Policies (#186), Triathlon Times Staff (#292), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#377), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#378), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#379), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#382), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#524), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#534), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#560), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#561), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#362), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#582), U.S. Department of Transportation (#9), Ulrich (#55), Various (#336), Various (#540), Vyrnwy-Jones, Lanoue, Pritts (#233), Wachtel (#130), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#157), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#160), Washington Area Bicyclist Association (#161), Zahradnik (#492),

Test Rigs



Andersson, Larsson, Sandberg (#487), Berger (#21), Chichester (#113), Dextrase (#517), Fisher (#444), Fisher (#273), Fournier and Smith (#322), Grudens (#284), Henderson (#175), Henderson (#24), Hodgson (#13), Hodgson (#14), Kroll (#19), Long, Dowdell & Griffiths (#274), Snively (#104), Snively and Chichester (#91),

Testing Theory



Berger (#21), Bishop (#64), Bishop (#65), Corner (#52), Fisher (#444), Fisher (#58), Fisher (#273), Fisher (#296), Gennarelli and Thibault (#183), Gurdjian, Roberts and Thomas (#184), Henderson (#175), Henderson (#24), Hodgson (#13), Hodgson (#14), Hodgson (#310), Hodgson (#357), Hodgson (#15), Howells (#241), Johnson & Knapp (#10), Johnson & Knapp (#11), Kostner, Stocker (#288), Long, Dowdell & Griffiths (#274), Low and Stalnaker (#269), McElhaney, Roberts, Stalnaker (#213), Morfey (#251), Newman (#59), Newman (#60), Newman (#179), Rojanavanich, Stalnaker (#216), Rojanavanich, Stalnaker (#217), Rolsten & Haley (#114), Rolsten, R. Fred and Haley (#180), Saczalski (#107), Smith, Terry and James Newman (#63), Snell Memorial Foundation (#355), Snively (#61), Snively (#104), Snively and Chichester (#91), Stalnaker, Fogle (#218), Stalnaker, Lin, Guenther (#214), Stalnaker, Low, Lin (#215), Swart (#583), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (#382), U.S. Department of Transportation (#9), Vyrnwy-Jones, Lanoue, Pritts (#233), Wachtel (#130),

Ventilation





Workshops



Bicycle Federation (#433), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#177), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#258), Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute (#362), Mathieson (#189),